Exercise Psychology Ch. 1-4

Topic: BusinessGoogle
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Last updated: April 28, 2019
Who is at greater risk for psychological problems if they have poor coping skills?

Sheila has set a lofty goal for herself: she would like to earn the starting point guardposition with the CSUEB women’s basketball team in her first year, right out of highschool. She is very detailed and organized with her preparation for camp.

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She hasbeen training hard at the gym, eating well, and working diligently on her free throwshooting and court vision. As training camp nears, Sheila can’t stop worrying aboutthings like what the other players will think about her, whether she will come across ashaving low “basketball IQ”, and how horrible it will be if she makes mistakes duringtraining camp. Based on what you’ve learned about personality from your requiredreading, you would suspect that Shelia:

Is a maladaptive perfectionist

What is a maladaptive perfectionist?

What is the Phenomenological Approach?

Researchers have used the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI) to investigate therelationship between coping skills and performance.

Results have indicated that:

Good psychological coping skills help athletes get the most out of theirabilityGood psychological coping skills are associated with continuedinvolvement in professional baseball

Coping strategies to help an athlete deal with adversity during performance are mosteffective when they are practiced enough that they are internalized by the athlete (theuse of coping strategies during adversity becomes automatic).

Research in the general psychological literature indicates that nature (i.e., genetics)generally accounts for approximately what percentage of behavior?
50 to 60%

As used in the sport psychology literature, motivation can refer to
an internal personality characteristican external influencea consequence of or an explanation for behavior

In a general sense, motivation can be defined as
Whether a person actually pursues an activity and how much effort heor she put forth in that pursuit.

Often times, what separates good teachers from mediocre teachers in any Kinesiologycareer (e.g., PT, OT, AT, PE teaching, coaching, personal training, nutrition consulting,etc.) is NOT technical knowledge of a sport or physical activity.

It is a teacher’s abilityto motivate people.


Sara is reading up on Samuel Merritt’s OT program in preparation for her upcomingPT interview. In one section that describes what Samuel Merritt is looking for in itsstudents, Sara reads: “We are looking for motivated individuals who are ready to makea difference in the lives of others”. This is a very vague use of the term motivation, andcould actually cause Sara a great deal of preparation stress since she could interpret”motivation” as used in the sentence in a variety of ways, including:
Sam Merritt wants people that have an inherent personality trait(psychological core trait) of high motivation.a and dSam Merritt wants people that are ‘game changers’ and that are highlydriven to change people’s lives.

Sam Merritt wants people that will do whatever it takes to be successful.

Rashaad hopes to become a PE teacher. When preparing his application forcredential programs, he thinks about how badly he wants to be viewed as the bestcandidate for every credential program to which he applies. He wants to be seen assuperior to all other candidates. He doesn’t really care about personal mastery of PEteaching skills? he just really wants to be seen as the best PE teacher in his county. Ashe’s compiling his documents, he realizes his GPA is only slightly above the minimumrequirement, and starts to doubt his PE teaching abilities. What behaviors is Rashaadmost likely to perform based on what you know about Achievement Goal Theory?
Rashaad is most likely to exert moderate to low effort in compiling hisapplication, and be very susceptible to distractions and procrastinationwhile doing so.

Why do people with a high task lowoutcome goal orientation profile display greaterwork ethic, persistence at a task, and more optimal performances compared to peoplewith a high outcome lowtask goal orientation profile?
Because people with a high task lowoutcome goal orientation profileconsistently select realistic opponents (when relevant), are not afraid offailure, and define their success relative to thier own standards ofperformance.Because people with a high task lowoutcome goal orientation profile areless affected psychologically by being ‘beaten’ by others, and because a high task lowoutcome oriented person perceives greater personal control of his or her performance situations.

People with a high outcome lowtask goal orientation profile exhibit inconsistentperceived competence perceptions? sometimes perceived competence is high, othertimes it’s low. This has a significant effect on subsequent achievement behaviors whenperceived competence is high they exert great effort, however, when perceivedcompetence is low, they reduce their efforts, make external excuses for theirperformance, or may even stop trying altogether.

Most people are equally high in both, task and outcome goal orientations.

Which of the following could be part of a person’s definition of success at the gym ifthey are highest in social goal orientation?
Getting lots of ‘likes’ on his or her Facebook gym selfies.

Having people approach him or her at the gym regularly to strike upconversation.Having other gym goers and gym staff refer to him or her as one of thegym’s ‘regulars’.Having friends ask if he or she will work out with them.All of the above are reasonable examples of how a high SGOpersonmight define success at the gym.

Rachel is the most physically skilled tennis player on her Sport and Exercise Psychology tennis lab team.

She perceives that her team ‘sucks’, and will ‘suck’ all season because on day 1 of team play, her teammates played poorly and did not seem to have very much physical tennis skill. From this information, you could reasonably hypothesize that Rachel holds an incremental perspective regarding physical tennis skills.


Based on your reading, what can you infer is the potential danger of a coach emphasizing an outcome goal orientation (i.e., winning and being the best is most important) with a young athlete?
The athlete will place the greatest importance on winning and being thebest, and thus, will sacrifice opportunities to learn (e.g.

, he or she willchoose easier practice partners, drills, exercises, etc.) for chances toobjectively beat someone, to look highly skilled, or to win.If the young athlete moves on to more elite and more competitive sport(where objective success is much more difficult to attain, consistently),that athlete will lose motivation to participate, will doubt his or herchances of being successful, and will have lower selfconfidencein his orher skills.The young athlete will have trouble staying motivated to train andpractice, and will enjoy the sport less, if he or she is not performing well incompetition.

The IZOF model of the relationship between state anxiety and performance indicates that all performers will perform best with a moderate amount of state anxiety.

Louise is the manager of a fitness center.

She has noticed that her trainers oftendisplay symptoms of anxiety when trying to sell gym members on personal training packages. These symptoms are negatively affecting sales numbers asthe trainers do not give a good sell to potential clients and are not coming across as confident or knowledgeable. Louise wants to figure out what the real issue isthat is hindering her trainers’ sales performances, so she sets up 10 minute meetings with each trainer and asks each trainer: “What performance demands do you feel are being placed on you when you are trying to sell packages to potential clients?” In this case study, which Stage of the stress process is Louise trying to assess?

Stage 2

What is stage 2 in the stress process?

The importance placed on an event and the uncertainty that surrounds the actions ofthat event are sources of
situational stress

In evaluative situations, individuals with high trait anxiety tend to exhibit
a) high state anxiety

Physiological responses occur in which stage of the stress process?
Stage 3

What is the definition of psychology?
The scientific study of of behaviour and mental processes.”

What is Hollander’s model of Personality?
It has a psychological core, typical responses, role related behaviors

What is the bit 5 trait theory?
OCEAN Openess, consciounescioustness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism.

What does the Psychodymanic theory focus on?
The unconscious mind. Instincts

Social Learning Theory
Views reinforcement of a response to a stimuli as a powerful means to shape behavior

What is the Humanistic Approach?
7 layers like a pyramind, basic needs must be met first before going to next level. starting with physiological needs ends with self actualization needs.

wHat is the Interactionist approach?
It depends on the person and the situation

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