EXISTING SCENARIO OF COTTON PROCESSING AND SPINNING2.1 GENERAL INFORMATION AND TERMINOLOGY ASSOCIATEDWITH COTTON AND SPINNING PROCESSING Cottonis the most cash crop in India and its cultivation area has doubled in the lastseven decades from 58.
82 to 121.51 lac hectares, increasing production from 34.30 to 345 lac bales of 170kg each. With drastic increase in theyield from 99 to 481 kg per hectare 1,2,3. However gap in income levels of rural sector has not reduced as comparedwith the urban sector. This may be dueto lack of rural industrialization and ignorance of modern technocrats towardsempowering artisans or craftsman to educated them or to improve their skill sothat production may get increased, modification or development of an existingmechanized system or machine available in rural areas. So by developing or modifying traditionalmethods or upgrading the knowledge and skill of workers , there may bedefinitely good change in rural sector and growth in self sufficiency.
Variousaspects of quality standards which a customer expects all the time. So this project is useful for Khadiinstitutions as well as the Khadi technical staff for improving the qualitystandards of Khadi. The main objectiveof the research is the basic inputs for improving the quality standards. A product which comes to the market shouldalways specify the details of products. Process control of hand – spun yarn is specially designed to take careof quality of Khadi at the first stage itself.Manufacture of Khadi fabrics is considered to beheritage based production activity. Itis being based on human skill; it provides strength or livelihood to a largesection of the population of India. Andone cannot deny a thing that traditional technologies have longer life thanscience based technologies, as they are faced with lots of challenges on andoff.
Due to stiff competition from mass– produced fabrics being available from India and foreign countries, theattraction of Khadi is decreasing day by day. If now the action not taken, there is danger of Khadi productionreduction. One of way to save Khadi isto provide quality assurance inputs so that Khadi quality may getincrease. So this research may be one ofthe step in this direction.
Khadi yarn needs more and more improvement s interms of consistency in count, strength, uniformity, and appearance too. Poor quality of yarns results in poor workingof looms, affects fabric appearance and properties of fabrics. Also dimensions of fabric changes after firstwash. These all takes Khadi at downlevel. And this would lead that poorquality of yarn is the characteristics of Khadi when compared with millfabric. Apart from this, nobody likes tomake Khadi equivalent to mill fabric by improving quality of khadi. For this purpose, a system comprising of a set of procedures isrequired for ensuring quality production.
This would need objective evaluation of essential properties of fiber,yarn and fabric and also fastness properties of dyed and printed Khadi to keepthe entire production process under control. In the present research, attempts have been made toprovide overall operation on making of yarn, selection of cotton fibersdepending on fiber characteristics. Quality norms for NMC yarn of cotton, muslin and polyvastra of differentcounts suggested on the basis of experimentally tested values of yarn samples collected. Spinning and weaving productivity data asachieved under actual working conditions of spinning machine. One of the major contributions of research ison process control in spinning which covers the information on common faults inmachine their reasons of generation and possible remedies. Thisstudy basically concentrates on vibration generated in bearing of spinningmachine.
Brief information is isprovided in appendix, which includes formats for test results, tables, selectedmathematical calculation, validation of mathematical equations and simulationtoo.