EXISTING SCENARIO OF COTTON PROCESSING AND SPINNING
2.1 GENERAL INFORMATION AND TERMINOLOGY ASSOCIATED
WITH COTTON AND SPINNING PROCESSING
is the most cash crop in India and its cultivation area has doubled in the last
seven decades from 58.82 to 121.51 lac hectares, increasing production from 34.30 to 345 lac bales of 170
kg each. With drastic increase in the
yield from 99 to 481 kg per hectare 1,2,3.
However gap in income levels of rural sector has not reduced as compared
with the urban sector. This may be due
to lack of rural industrialization and ignorance of modern technocrats towards
empowering artisans or craftsman to educated them or to improve their skill so
that production may get increased, modification or development of an existing
mechanized system or machine available in rural areas. So by developing or modifying traditional
methods or upgrading the knowledge and skill of workers , there may be
definitely good change in rural sector and growth in self sufficiency.
aspects of quality standards which a customer expects all the time. So this project is useful for Khadi
institutions as well as the Khadi technical staff for improving the quality
standards of Khadi. The main objective
of the research is the basic inputs for improving the quality standards. A product which comes to the market should
always specify the details of products.
Process control of hand – spun yarn is specially designed to take care
of quality of Khadi at the first stage itself.
Manufacture of Khadi fabrics is considered to be
heritage based production activity. It
is being based on human skill; it provides strength or livelihood to a large
section of the population of India. And
one cannot deny a thing that traditional technologies have longer life than
science based technologies, as they are faced with lots of challenges on and
off. Due to stiff competition from mass
– produced fabrics being available from India and foreign countries, the
attraction of Khadi is decreasing day by day.
If now the action not taken, there is danger of Khadi production
reduction. One of way to save Khadi is
to provide quality assurance inputs so that Khadi quality may get
increase. So this research may be one of
the step in this direction.
Khadi yarn needs more and more improvement s in
terms of consistency in count, strength, uniformity, and appearance too. Poor quality of yarns results in poor working
of looms, affects fabric appearance and properties of fabrics. Also dimensions of fabric changes after first
wash. These all takes Khadi at down
level. And this would lead that poor
quality of yarn is the characteristics of Khadi when compared with mill
fabric. Apart from this, nobody likes to
make Khadi equivalent to mill fabric by improving quality of khadi. For this purpose, a system comprising of a set of procedures is
required for ensuring quality production.
This would need objective evaluation of essential properties of fiber,
yarn and fabric and also fastness properties of dyed and printed Khadi to keep
the entire production process under control.
In the present research, attempts have been made to
provide overall operation on making of yarn, selection of cotton fibers
depending on fiber characteristics.
Quality norms for NMC yarn of cotton, muslin and polyvastra of different
counts suggested on the basis of experimentally tested values of yarn samples collected. Spinning and weaving productivity data as
achieved under actual working conditions of spinning machine. One of the major contributions of research is
on process control in spinning which covers the information on common faults in
machine their reasons of generation and possible remedies. This
study basically concentrates on vibration generated in bearing of spinning
machine. Brief information is is
provided in appendix, which includes formats for test results, tables, selected
mathematical calculation, validation of mathematical equations and simulation