FISHCOMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN FRESHWATER AREAS IN MALAYSIA ABSTRACTA study showed thatnumerous in depth survey have been finished on the ichthyofauna of the peatswamp forests (PSFs) of Malaysia. This overview aims to provide a tick list ofblackwater fish species in Malaysia, and address their comparatively cheapsignificance, conservation fame and issues of PSFs. A total of 198 peat swampfish species from 32 families were recorded in Malaysia. From this quantity, atotal of 114 species from 23 families, representing approximately 40% of theacknowledged fish fauna in Peninsular Malaysia, had been recorded from northSelangor PSF.Meanwhile, a complete of forty nine species belonging to 18families, 13 species from seven families, 58 species belonging to 19 families,and 9 species from 5 fmilies had been recorded from the peat swamps of Perak,Johor, Pahang and East Peninsular Malaysia (parts of Pahang and Terengganu),respectively.
In the meantime, 31 species from 12 families and 40 speciesbelonging to 13 Families have been recorded from Sabah and Sarawak,respectively. Family Cyprinidae has the best recorded species, accompaniedthrough Osphronemidae, Bagridae and Siluridae. 12 threatened species dealingwith risk of extinction. The significance of preserving PSFs fishes becomementioned and suggestions made consistent with the objectives of conservation.
1.0INTRODUCTION Peat swamp forests (PSFs) are astandout amongst the most unordinary and harsh biological systems in thetropical rainforest biome. The PSFs of Peninsular Malaysia are the mostundermined (illegal logging, water system of oil palm and paddy fields), yet themost inadequately comprehended biotopes (Ng et al.
, 1994). Those swamps gettheir name from their substrate of peat comprising of plant waste, whichrelease tannins and organic acids into poorly cradled water and add to itsnormally low pH (Ng et al., 1994; yule, 2010; Posa et al., 2011; Wantzen etal., 2011). Peat swamps are essentially called as ‘black waters’, whilst watersstarting from PSFs are very acidic with pH measurements strolling from 3.
6 to5.9, tea-shaded while seen towards transmitted mild, and dark while seen enmasse with the aid of contemplated mild (Johnson, 1967ab; 1968). The best areas of the blackwaters of Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia recorded by Wyatt-Smith (1959; 1964), Johnson (1967a;1968), Anderson (1983) and Whitmore (1984; 1988) have been changed over tocultivation, business and neighbourhoods (Ng et al.
, 1994). The peat swampforests of Johor, which were of lovely vastness in Peninsular Malaysia, areabsolutely degraded. Peat swamp forests of dazzling length in PeninsularMalaysia are presently restrained to north Selangor, crucial Terengganu andPahang (Ng et al., 1994).
The particular residences ofblack waters (darkish coloration, low dissolved oxygen and high acidity)brought about an underlying confusion of ‘habitat inhospitality’, and thebelief that such living space will manage extremely negative faunal respectablerange. One of the soonest studies of the fish fauna of Malaysia peat swampsbecome with the aid of Johnson (1967ab; 1968) who recorded simply 26 species inblack waters, of which just a one is stenotopic to black water.The principle difficulty thattakes place at several varieties of fishes in freshwater areas is fished hadbeen residing in wild action, as an instance, logging, industrialization, andpollutions.
The targets of this study are to offer a lcheckist of black waterfish species in Malaysia, examine their economic significance and also tocollate records and decide the distribution of the peat swamp fishes. 1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY i.
To list fish species that been sampledat selected areas along freshwater areas in Malaysia and determine theireconomic importance of peat swamp fishes ii. To highlight the conservationstatus of peat swamp fish species in Malaysia 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEWS2.1Diversity of Fish It hasbeen assessed that the total number of all fishes around the globe is 32,500species (Nelson, 2006). The latest research done by Chonget al. (2010), listed a total of 521 species of freshwater fish inhabitingMalaysian freshwater ecosystems. Freshwater fish are fish that spend part orthe majority of their lives in freshwater. Their natural surroundings as a rulecomprises of lentic and lotic biological systems.
Lentic biological communitiesare those with still water, for example, lakes, marshes and lakes. Lotic are the ecosystems of rivers, streams and springs.Those two territories are altogether different. Living conditions in them areimpacted by ecological conditions and water composition. Freshwaterfishes in Malaysia are reasonably differing with roughly 470 species ofcomprising freshwater fishes concerning 15 families have been recorded inMalaysia (Chong et al, 2010) and greater than 200 species can be discovered in Peninsular Malaysia (Ismail and Sabariah, 1995). according toZakaria-Ismail (1994), species composition of freshwater fish in PeninsularMalaysia is very suffering from Siamese and Indonesian factors.
PeninsularMalaysia is bounded through Thailand in the north and Indonesian archipelago inside the south. The stream and advent of the fish in eachdwelling area had been nearly connected with different factors, for instance,availability of meals, breeding places, velocity of water,intensity, topography and physicochemical characteristics of water(Harris,1995). Besides, it is additionally hometo various types of freshwater fishes and exotic wildlife. From studies andperceptions led by the Department of Fisheries, species such as the big LampamSungai (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii), Toman ( Channa micropeltes), and Kelisa(Osteoglossidae) an others species are found in waters and around dead trees. Dynamic developing mayprompt natural surroundings devastation, degradation and discontinuity whichposture genuine dangers to aquatic environment and its resource potential. As apart of stream biological community, fish not just assumes a huge part inkeeping up a healthy aquatic environment, it is additionally a part of foodchain. Although Malaysia is known to have a high diversity of fish, theircurrent status and the total number of species found are left to much argumentand speculation (V.
C. Chong, P. K. Y.
Lee, C. M. Lau, 2010). Investigations ofspatial and fleeting examples of decent variety, distribution and species compositionof freshwater fishes are valuable to look at factors affecting the structure ofthe fish group (Galactos et al., 2004). Fish species also can determine theecological health. The distribution and health of fish also show the health ofwater bodies (Hamzah, 2007).
2.2 Abiotic factors on distribution of freshwater species Abiotic factors andtheir effect on fish assemblages. Abiotic factors were separated into twogrids: one with physical and chemical variables (electric conductivity, pH,water temperature, dissolved oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and ChemicalOxygen Demand (COD), and the other with morphometric variables (width, watervelocity, discharge, depth). The species distribution of fish in the lake isessentially extraordinary with the species circulation of fish in marinebiological community. Accordingto National Biological InformationInfrastructure (NBII), freshwater fish will frequently be not able survive ifthe saltiness levels of their encompassing water achieve more than .05 percent.
These characteristics for every morphology of fish will be utilized todistinguish the types of fish and record similarly as to their family andspecies level. 2.2.1Water Quality Many variables caninfluence water quality around the lake, for example, sedimentation, runoff,disintegration, dissolved oxygen, Ph, temperature, and litter and junk.
Substances in air will influence precipitation in a zone. Carbon dioxide,oxygen, and nitrogen, are dissolved or entrapped in rain. At the point whendifferent substances, for example, sulphur dioxide, poisonous chemicals, orlead are noticeable all around, they are additionally gathered in the rain asit tumbles to the ground. This is some example ifthe soils contain high measures of dissolvable substances such as limestone, highconcentrations of calcium carbonate will affected in the runoff. Industrial,cultivating, mining, and forestry activities essentially influence the rivers,and groundwater. For instance, cultivating can build the centralization ofsupplements, pesticides, and suspended residue. Factories can buildconvergences of metals and harmful chemicals, include suspended sediment, raiseof temperature, and lower dissolved oxygen in the water. Each of these impactscan give negative affect to the aquaticbiological ecosystem and additionally make water unsuitable for established orpotential employments.
3.0DISCUSSION 3.1Taxonomy 3.
3.1North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest Asurvey of freshwater fish of NSPSF in 1989 from Davies and Abdullah (1989),recorded forty two fish species belonging to 11 families. A number ofscientific names, from circle of relatives to species level, had been changedover the past decade. The most latest comprehensive listing of such changes isoutlined in Kottelat’s catalogue of the fishes of Southeast Asia (Kottelat,2013).Researchby Beamish et al. (2003) carried out from 1997 to 1998 recorded 35 fish speciesfrom North Selangor Peat Swamp woodland (NSPSF) belonging to fourteen families(genuinely thirteen because Belontiidae and Luciocephalidae which are nowincluded in Osphronemidae, had been recorded separately), at the same time asGiam et al. (2012) recorded eight blackwater fish species belonging to the sixfamilies from NSPSF.
Currently,at some stage in the Selangor scientific and Biodiversity Peatland expeditionof 2013, Ahmad et al. (2013), Ismail et al. (2013) and Siow et al.
(2013)recorded 30 species from 13 families, 41 species from thirteen families, and 24species 10 families. 3.1.2 Paya Beriah Peat SwampForest, North PerakThePaya Beriah peat swamp forest area (PBPSF), which is placed close to BukitMerah reservoir, Perak, has a total area of 5,500 hectares which are borderedby way of dykes, roads and railway tracks. Like most PSFs in Malaysia, it hasbeen extensively impacted via conversion to residential, commercial andagricultural makes use of (Ismail & Ali, 2002). Nevertheless, the fishpopulation and its biodiversity in PBPSF aren’t nicely documented, inassessment with NSPSF. The most recognised and nicely-documented surveys inPBPSF had been achieved with the aid of Zakaria et al.
(1999), Rezawaty (2004)and Shah et al. (2006).Investigationfrom Rezawaty (2004) stated a complete of 30 fish species from 12 families in astudy executed at the complete Sungai Beriah drainage device, at the same timeas at some stage in an intensive survey of the PBPSF, mainly in Beriah Kanan,Beriah Kiri and Beriah rivers, Shah et al. (2006) recorded a total of 32 fishspecies belonging to 13 families.3.
1.3 PSF in Johor13fish species and 7 families were found in swamps area, pools, and PSFs of WestJohor and Ambat by Giam et al. (2012).3.1.4 Southeast Pahang Peat SwampForestAhmadet al. (2005) recorded 58 fish species from 17 families for the duration of asurvey in Bebar River, a huge river that flows out of the southeast Pahang peatswamp forest (SEPPSF, which is likewise called Pekan peat swamp forest).
In BebarRiver and Serai River, the result is the entire fish species recognized inSEPPSF to 65 species ( Ahmad et al., 2005). 3.1.5 PSF in East PeninsularMalaysiaGiamet al.
(2012) had overview 9 fish species from six families from the PSF ofeast Peninsular Malaysia. The genus are S. lineatus and Neohomalopterajohorensis.3.1. PSF in SabahThefish species of Sabah are relatively less surveyed and documented than those ofPeninsular Malaysia. They stated a total number of fish species is 65 speciesfrom 20 families and 30 fish species were recorded in black water ditches,ponds and streams from the lower Segama River. This was recorded by (Martin-Smith& Tan, 1998).
Sadeand Biun (2012) studied the ichthyofauna of Maliau Basin, he found that 15 fishspecies had been recorded from the investigation, simplest three species hadbeen recorded from highly acidic yellowish coloured water in the area.3.1.7 PSF in SarawakInSarawak, 164 fish species was recorded in brackish waters areas by Parenti andLim (2005). A total of 7 blackwater fish species have been listed from blackwaterditches and pools nearby.Inblackwater and ponds, four species of fish were found recorded by Tan and Lim(2013) and also Giam et al. (2012) recorded 13 fish species belonging to five families. 3.
2THE IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMIC OF PEAT SWAMP FISHES IN MALAYSIA InNSPSF, most of the fish are harvested just for food and also for the money dueto their value (Ng et al., 1994; Ismail et al., 2013). Maximum of the speciesharvested for intake with the aid of the local community are offered at verylow charges relative to their real worth (Ng et al., 1994). 4.
0CONCLUSION It is clearly from the continuing that one ofthe strongest justifications for conservation of peat swamps is the prevailingichthyofauna. Therefore, keepingfish populations of PSFs can be very importance. Other than the need to keepsuitable aquatic habitats for the fish, a few other critical cause is after thepeat dries out because of drainage, it can cause fire and destroy populationsurroundings (Langner et al.
, 2007)4.1 The Conservation Reputation ofPeat Swamp Fish Species in MalaysiaManyresearchers make a speculation that our PSF become extinct in the future(InfoNatura, 2007). The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)Red Listing of threatened Species is the high-quality acknowledged conservationrepute list machine within the global, which classifies species into nineclasses based totally on the fee of decline of the population, populationlength, geographical range, and percent of population and distributionfragmentation (Mace et al., 2008).