Foundations of Reading MTEL

Topic: ArtFrida Kahlo
Sample donated:
Last updated: May 12, 2019
Fluency
Reading with good rate, accuracy (aka automaticity) and with good intonation (aka prosody). Accurate, fast word recognition contributes to automaticity and fluency. Fluency is necessary but not sufficient for comprehension.

Figurative Language
Language that is not literal, e.g. similies, metaphors, idioms, use of symbolism and often imagery, and usually requires making inferences to understand.

Literal Language
Language that is right there, explicit, no inferencing needed.
Inferential Language
Language that requires readers to combine literal language with prior knowledge or to make connections that are not explicit. If the author writes, Mary felt sick. She went to bed.

The author implied and the reader should infer that Mary went to bed BECAUSE she was sick. This cause/affect relationship is inferred.

Evaluative Thinking
Goes beyond the text. The reader makes a judgement or draws an original conclusion when using evaluative thinking. It is open ended and high level. It requires creative or critical thinking.

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(e.g. when we decide that a particular author is a racist it is often based on evaluative thinking vs. literal thinking.

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Elements of Literature
The components that make a story a story: characterization, setting, theme, plot, and also style and point of view (or voice).
Setting
The time and place where the story takes place, the setting can be the antagonist of the story.
Plot
Typically the problem solution structure that begins with an initiating event and contains episodes that climax and then resolve. Typically plots for children result in satisfying, happy endings.

Flashbacks and foreshadowing disrupt the linear, time sequential nature of plots.

Theme
The central, underlying important idea of the story; stories may have one or more themes. The theme is often the reason the author wrote the story.
Characterization
Authors characterize by telling about the character, by presenting the character’s thoughts, or by showing the interaction of the character with other characters. Characters must be believable even in fantasies.
Point of View
The perspective from which the story is told (aka voice).
Style
The techniques the author uses to write, e.g.

use of figurative language such as imagery, metaphor, simile, symbolism or use of poetic language, rhyme, length of sentences, or use of discriptive language.

Rule of Three
Many traditional stories are based on three of something, three wishes, three pigs, three blind mice, three little kittens.
Genre
A category of literature: fantasy, realistic fiction, historical fiction. Traditional literature such as folk tales, fables, fairy tales, myths, legends.
Fables
Traditional stories in which the characters are animals and there is an explicit moral or lesson.
Mood
The overall feeling of a story.
Allusion
A backward literary reference from the story you are reading now to a classic story or the Bible.

E.g. Cher in the movie, Clueless, is an allusion ot the character, Emma, in the Jane Austen novel.

Trade Books
Simply, books you can find in a book store or library.

They are authentic texts written and illustrated by real authors and illustrators. They are not basals.

Basals
Reading materials, often anthologies of bound together stories, prepared by publishers and sold to school systems to teach reading. They come with bery big teachers’ manuals that guide teachers’ instruction and assessment of students.
Connected Text
Literally, text that is connected, including sentences, paragraphs, whole stories or chapters. It is not just separate words.
Cause/Effect
A relationship between ideas where one idea is caused by another, these can be present in boht narrative/literary texts and in expository texts.

Compare/Contrast
A relationship between ideas where two or more ideas are compared: What do they have in common? Where are they different?
Chronological Structures
A time line of events, what happened first, second, etc. A flashback in a story disrupts the chronological, linear pattern.
Problem-Solution Structures
The type of structure most used in narrative/literary texts. Story grammars and maps are built on problem-solution structures.
Skimming
Rapid reading for which the reader obtains a gist or general idea.
Scanning
Rapid reading where the reader already knows the word/phrase s/he is trying to locate.

E.g. use a phone book, dictionary or index.

Exposition
Informative text, typical of textbooks and nonfiction.

Trade books
Books one finds in the library or in book stores; books written by real authors (no bound anthologies or basal readers).
Basal Reader
A bound reader published with the purpose of teaching children to read, carefully leveled to be readable for a particular age/level of learner.
Leveled Text
Texts that have been carefully suquenced in order based on known elements that determine ease of difficulty of reading such as picture support, length of sentences or words, vocabulary, concept load, prior knowledge needed, number of characters, symbolism, etc.
Content Area Reading
Reading that is usually found in textbooks in the separate disciplines such as social studies, science, math, health, etc.

It is not literature.

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