12 syllables. Sometimes divided into two lines with six syllables each. Moliere used this in “L’Ecole des Femmes.”
Turn of phrase in which one abandons one structure in order to take on another.
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repetition of the same word or phrase. (e.
g. “Maintenant que mon temps decroit comme un flambeau/Que mes taches sont terminees;/Maintenant que voici que je touche au tombeau…” – Victor Hugo, “Paroles sur la dune”)
juxtaposition of two contradictory thoughts or expressions
A way of addressing a person or personnified thing without using their name. (e.g. “- Hypocrite lecteur, – mon semblable, – mon frere!” – Baudelaire, “Au Lecteur”)
repitition of the same vowel.
Like alliteration, only vowel version
use of a word to mean something other than its traditional meaning (e.g. “L’or du soir qui tombe” – Victor Hugo, “Demain, des l’aube”)
a break in the middle of a line or verse after an accented syllable that works with the train of thought.
Inversion of a theme in a parallel structure.
(e.g. “Un roi chantait en bas, en haut mourait un Dieu” – Victor Hugo, “Booz endormi”)
Simile/Analogy that uses words such as “comme,” “tel,” and “ainsi que” (“like,” “such,” and “as well as”/”as”).
Baudelarian theory which states that each element of some aspect of the universe (e.g. colors) corresponds to an element of another aspect (e.
g. shape) and can serve as a symbol for that other aspect.
Pause at the end of a rythmic group in a verse/line.
Division of two consecutive vowels into two separate syllables
meditative poem with a melancoly and tender tone
Two or more lines in a poem that compliment, complete, or correspond with eachother.
The main idea, emotion, feeling, or theme of a poem
series of syllables pronounced as though they formed a single word and finishe in one coup. Generally, it expresses only one idea
Half of a vers that is cut by a cesure.
something that is exaggerated in order to hit home. Opposite of litote.
Opposite of hyperbole.
Uses less to convey more.
A character in the poem expresses feelings of the auther, as in Victor Hugo’s “Demain des l’aube.”
A single word is used to represent another
word invented by Aime Cesaire. It’s a black empowerment movement that took place globally, but chiefly in France.
a line with eight syllables
word(s) that immitate the sound they describe
A group of poets (post 1860) who were reacting against the romantic movement. They wrote objective and impersonal poetry that was often philosophical analysis of nature. Among these poets were Theophile Gautier, Leconte de Lisle, and Sully-Prudhomme.
A long sentence made up of many ideas, but which gives a sense of completeness and equilibrium by the end.
(Can last as long as 12 lines or more.)
Something that could have been stated in one word is said in many words.
A manner of speaking to an inanimate object, a dead person, a person who is not there, or a personnified object.
A verse consisting of 4 lines
A part of the enjambement. A line that somehow connects to a previous line in a poem.
Rhyme pattern: a b a b
Rhyme pattern: a b b a
rhymes that end in a silent “e.”
Rhymes based solely on the final vowel. (e.g. soldats/bras; lit/mit)
rhymes that don’t end in a silent “e.
Rhyme pattern: a a b b
Rhymes based on words’ final vowel and two or more other sound-related elements
rhymes based on the final vowel and one other sound-related element
A poem that has two quatrains and two tercets. The rhyme scheme goes “abba abba ccd eed.”
Stanza. Or one “paragraph” of a poem.
synonym of metonymie. A single word used to represent another.
a stanza with three lines
The rules for writing a line in a poem