From (in mammals) to release the autophagic body

From Greek means “eating of self,” autophagy is a process that leads
to the destruction of particular importance in stressful situations such as
starvation . The regulation and implementation of life and
death intention require advanced cellular pathways that can accommodate many
intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including metabolic and hormonal signals,
nutritional state and absorption, and abiotic and biotic stresses . Now evidence shows that autophagy acts as a mechanism
for targeting a wide range of additional or toxic components in controlling
cellular quality and stress response . It has now been proven that autophagy mechanisms contribute to the
abundance of plant life cycle processes including reproduction, development,
primary metabolism, signaling hormone, cellular homeostasis, senescence, stress
response and disease resistance . Autophagy is an intracellular
trafficking and destruction pathway, with key activities protected from
cellular poisoning, development, and stress responses from yeast to plants and
mammals. Autophagic mechanisms relies on two membrane-specific vesicles called autophagosomes, which transfer cytoplasmic portions to lytic portions to remove unwanted substances, or generate energy blocks and
building blocks. Autophagosome formed in the structure preautophagosomal /
phagophore assembly site (PAS) begins and expansion  Phagophore around cellular targets . The outer membrane of autophagosome becomes
complete and finally fuses
with the vacuole (in yeast and plants) or lysosome (in mammals) to release the
autophagic body to destroy the hydrolytic cargo. The successive stages of Autophagy’s reliance
on extensive membrane remodeling and trafficking events and require
the concerted action of more than 30 ATG-dependent genes. first identified by extensive genetic displays in yeast, most of the ATG
proteins has orthologs in higher eukaryotes
and are highly protective core autophagy


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