Fundementals of Education

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Last updated: May 13, 2019
Enabling laws
Laws that make it possible for educators to do certain things. 
Administrative law Rules and regulations
that the executive branches of government create. 
Judicial interpretive process
The judicial process of drawing conclusions about the intent of the wording in the Constitution and statutes
Case law
Decisions of state and federal courts
Child benefit theory
A criterion used by the U.S.

Supreme Court to determine whether services provided to nonpublic school students benefit children and not a particular school or religion

Legal and/or social separation of people on the basis of their race
De jure segregation
The segregation of students on the basis of law, school policy, or a practice designed to accomplish such separation
De Facto segregation
the segregation of students resulting from circumstances such as housing patterns rather than law or school policy
The process of correcting illegal segregation
The process of mixing students of different races in school
A situation in which formerly integrated schools become segregated again because of changes in neighborhood population patterns
Race-conscious assignment
The strategy of taking race into account for placement of students without making it the primary or single consideration
Affirmative action Policies and procedures
designed to compensate for past discrimination against women and members of minority groups (for example, assertive recruiting and admissions practices)
Reverse discrimination
A situation in which a majority or an individual of a majority is denied certain rights because of preferential treatment provided to a minority or an individual of a minority
No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
 Identifies schools in need of improvement through standardized tests with increased ephisis on reading and mathematics. If schools don’t meet AYP requirements for 5 consecutive years it could require a state takeover or turning into a charter school for re-structuring. 
Title I
I A federal program that provides financial assistance to schools with large numbers of low-income students to help students meet state standards
Equal opportunity education
Access to similar education for all students regardless of their cultural background or family circumstances.
Affirmative action
Policies and procedures designed to compensate for past discrimination against women and members of minority groups (for example, asseve recruiting and admissions practices).
Public Law 94-142
Education for All Handicapped Children Act
 What are the three important themes of Section 504 of the rehabilitation act?
Three important themes addressed in Section 504 are equal treatment, appropriate education, and people with disabilities. 

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L. 94-142 /  IDEA

This law ensures “a free appropriate public education” to all children with disabilities. When it originated the law was called PL 94-142 it is now called IDEA Federal funds are made available through various grants to support services for children from birth to 26 years of age
Increased Quality and Rigor
There was a need to align IDEA with NCLB including making definitions, such as “highly qualified” teachers and “limited English proficient” consistent. Another important element was the heavy emphasis placed on “scientifically based research.” Teachers and schools are expected to use classroom practices that are based on rigorous research. 
Head Start
 A federally funded early childhood education program for three- to five-year-olds from low-income families designed to close the academic gap between them and more advantaged students before kindergarten. 
Title IX
Higher Education Amendments is the major legislation that addresses the civil rights of girls and women in the education system. It requires federally funded colleges and schools to provide equal educational opportunity to girls and women.

Title IX prohibits pregnant woman their exclusion from school or from participation in extracurricular activities. 

First Amendment (1st)
Ensures freedom of speech, of religion, and of the press.
Tenth Amendment (10th)
Grants responsibility for education to each state
Fourteenth Amendment 14th  
The Fourteenth Amendment forbids states from denying any person “life, liberty or property, without due process of law” or to “deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” Ensures equal educational opportunity. 
Due process
the legal procedures that must be followed to safeguard individuals from arbitrary, capricious, or unreasonable policies, practices, or actions.
Procedural due process
has to do with whether the procedures used in disciplinary cases are fair
substantive due process
is concerned with whether the school authorities have deprived a student of basic substantive constitutional rights such as personal liberty, property, or privacy.


An act (or the omission of an act) that violates the private rights of an individual. 
How states fund education 
The three principal kinds of taxes that provide revenue for schools are property taxes, sales or use taxes, and income taxes.
Regressive taxes
such as sales and use taxes, are those that affect low-income groups disproportionately
Progressive tax
that is, one that taxes according to ability to pay; the more wealth one has in property, the more one pays. 
Family Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
Also referred to as the Buckley Amendment Schools and teachers must maintain confidentiality of student records, and parents must be able to review and challenge the records for their children. 
School improvement process (SIP)
The annual activities that school staff members engage in to identify and resolve shortcomings in student learning.


Ethnic membership based on national origin from a continent such as Africa, Asia, or North America. 
The state of fairness and justice across individuals and groups; it does not mean the same educational strategies across groups but does expect equal results.
The integration of all students, regardless of their background or abilities, in all aspects of the educational process. You should not be expected to serve as both the teacher and specialist. 
Response to Intervention (RTI):
Response to Intervention (RTI): regulations for the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act for identifying special education students. RTI is a three-tiered screening system that allows teachers to determine whether students are learning, using interventions as necessary.

The first tier is instruction for all students. The second tier is generally small-group instruction for students who are having difficulty. The third tier is individualized instruction for students who need a more intensive level of instruction. Students in the third tier may be eligible for special education services. 

Saying the Pledge of Allegiance in class
is an example of citizenship
Civic behavior
Connecting to civic and religious groups, Trusting other people, Connecting to others through family and friends, Giving and volunteering,  Staying informed,  Understanding civics and politics,  Participating in politics,  Trusting and feeling connected to major institutions, and  Expressing political views.


Greatest challenge facing those involved in vocational education
is preparing students so they can adjust to change and adapt to new possibilities in the work force
To eliminate confusion about the common culture of the United States among students newly arrived from a different background
the school must carefully align the formal and hidden curricula to reinforce national values and rules. 
Charter schools
Public schools established by teachers, parents, nonprofit organizations, and others under a contract with the state or local school district. They are exempt from many state and district regulations as they design and deliver programs for improving the academic performance of students. 
Montessori school
includes little or no large-group instruction, especially for three- to six-year-olds.

The teacher works with one child at a time or with a small group of children. The same teacher remains with the same students while they grow through this developmental stage. Older children help teach the skills they have already learned to the younger children. 

Blue Ribbon
schools that are either high-performing schools or dramatically improved public and private schools. Students in the high-performing schools must be achieving in the top 10 percent of their state on state tests. 
Junior High Schools and Middle Schools
 share a different philosophy of how young adolescents learn and develop. Typically the Junior High is attached to the high school. 
Civil Rights Act
not only authorized the federal government to initiate court suits against school districts that were laggard in desegregating schools but also denied federal funds for programs that discriminated by race, color, or national origin.


Is AIDS conidered a Disabilities?
 Americans with Disabilities Act expanded the definition of disability in such a way as to include people with AIDS. 
In loco parentis
Meaning “in the place of a parent,” this term describes the implied power and responsibilities of schools.In loco parentis powers, gives schools them the right to conduct searches and seize contraband on reasonable suspicion without a warrant. 
corporal punishment
It is established that corporal punishment may be authorized by the state constitution. 
Which Sign Languagehas it’s own complex grammar and well-regulated syntax.


American Sign Language (ASL) with its own complex grammar and well-regulated syntax. 
Culturally relevant teaching
 when teachers practice beliefs that all students can learn, who place students at the center of teaching, and who try to build on their cultural backgrounds and experiences, will develop meaningful learning experiences when they engage in. 
What happens to the number of people with disabilities in accordance with their age? 
 The number of people with disabilities increases with age. 
 The process of learning the social norms of one’s culture. 
What percentage of students receives regular standards based diplomas at the same time as the class which they begin school?
What percentage  of teenage mothers who graduate from high school or obtain their GED?
 about 60% 
What is the percentage of sixteen and seventeen-year-old high school students who work during the school year?
40% approximately
 What percentage of kindergarten through fifth grade students have their after school supervision provided by their parents? 
About half (50%)
Three different Principal leadership styles according to Hall ; Hord
 they are called initiators, managers, and responders.INITIATORS: Have clear and strongly held images for what the school should be like.

MANAGERS: Are very knowledgeable about policies, rules, and procedures. RESPONDERS: Respect their teachers and assume that they know what needs to be done. 

Content knowledge
 how well do you know the subject(s) you will teach? 
Pedagogical knowledge
 how much do you know about how students learn and different teaching strategies? 
Pedagogical content knowledge
 are you able to connect what you are teaching with the experiences and background that your students bring to each lesson? 
National Education Association (NEA)
 is by far the largest teachers’ organization. Many states require teacher education programs to be accredited through the national organization known as NCATE.


American Federation of Teachers
the second largest teachers’ union and is an affiliate of the AFL-CIO.
Research has shown that concerns about the change process tend to occur in what order?
unconcerned, self, task, impact
Where can Teachers’ organizations and unions be affective?
 Teachers’ organizations and unions can be effective at the state level in influencing policies, laws, and regulations. 
Phi Delta Kappa
International is an organization that primarily serves all educators.

Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC)
 organization that created a set of principles that describe what teachers should know and be able to do. 
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)
   a national association that creates and publishes standards and offers certification to accomplished teachers. 
Is a initial teaching license provision or permanent?
 When teachers are granted their initial teaching license, that license is usually good for a provisional period before securing a professional license. 
Actions in tort
generally based on alleged negligence; the basis of tort liability or legal responsibility is negligence. 
Can Children of illegal aliens get free public education?

In 1982 the Supreme Court ruled that the children of illegal aliens had a right to a free public education.  

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