GACE READING

Damselflies and dragonflies share a general scientific name — Odonata — and are often misidentified. One easy way to distinguish between the two is to observe the wings. The rear pair of dragonfly wings is broader than the front pair, whereas both sets of a damselfly’s wings are essentially equal. A second technique involves looking at the eyes: the damselfly’s are on opposite sides of its head, whereas dragonfly eyes are closer together.
Question:

According to the passage, one way to distinguish between a dragonfly and a damselfly is by

A. comparing the size of the insects
B. counting the insect’s wings
C. counting the insect’s eyes
D. observing the shape of the insect’s wings
E. observing the shape of the insect’s eyes

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Correct Answer: D

Option (D) is correct. The second and third sentences of the passage indicate that dragonfly wings are distinguished from damselfly wings by their shape.

Ballet companies do not draw their artistic energy from the choreographic vision of a single creator. They are like museums: repositories for the preservation and display of works by artists of diverse aesthetic points of view within the ballet tradition. Modern-dance companies, in contrast, are more like galleries: established and driven by individual choreographers specifically to perform their works.

Question:

The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. suggest that ballet and modern dance are characterized by certain similarities
B. explain the increasing popularity of modern dance
C. contrast two kinds of dance companies
D. describe recent changes in certain dance companies
E. compare current modern-dance companies with older modern-dance companies

Correct Answer: C

Option (C) is correct. The passage draws a contrast between ballet companies and
modern-dance companies.

The use of bitter manioc, a starchy root, by precontact populations in the Orinoco valley is inferred from archaeological grater flakes, griddle fragments, and topia, the ceramic stands that support a griddle over a fire. All of these artifacts are used by modern populations to process bitter manioc. Sweet manioc tends to be ignored as a possibility, perhaps because there are no modern artifacts associated with its processing.

Question:

According to the passage, why do archaeologists believe that bitter manioc was used by precontact populations?

A. It is not necessary to cook sweet manioc over a fire before eating it.
B. Bitter manioc is more popular than sweet manioc in the Orinoco valley today.
C. Bitter manioc is used by modern populations living in the Orinoco valley.
D. Items similar to those used today to process bitter manioc have been found at archaeological sites.
E. Griddles that stand on topia are used today to process a number of different foods.

Correct Answer: D

Option (D) is correct. The first sentence of the passage says that use of bitter manioc is inferred from artifacts found at archaeological sites. The second sentence says that modern populations use the same types of items to process bitter manioc.

Grammatical language defines humanity. The complex vocalizationsof mammals such as dolphins andLineprimates have been the subject of(5)many studies, but so far, no naturalanimal communication appears to havea power of expression that is in anyway close to human language.Animal communication can be based(10)on a limited repertoire of calls(e.g., warning or territorial calls) orconsist of variations on a theme(such as birdsong) or be a continuoussignal (e.g., the honeybee’s dance,(15)which transmits information on foodsources). But the grammar inherent inhuman language enables us, in thewords of Wilhelm von Humboldt, to “make infinite use of finite means.”

Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?

A. More research needs to be done on animal communication before it can profitably be compared to human communication.
B. Human language, as compared to the diverse types of animal communication, is distinguished by a system of grammar.
C. Wilhelm von Humboldt, a grammar expert, notes that humans and animals have a similar capacity for infinite communication.
D. Dolphins and primates have a system of intricate articulations that is similar to that of humans.
E. Animal warning calls, as well as birdsong and the dance of honeybees, have elements of grammatical structure.

Correct Answer: B

Option (B) is correct. The passage compares human language with animal communication and asserts that grammar is what makes human communication uniquely powerful.

Grammatical language defines humanity. The complex vocalizationsof mammals such as dolphins andLineprimates have been the subject of(5)many studies, but so far, no naturalanimal communication appears to havea power of expression that is in anyway close to human language.Animal communication can be based(10)on a limited repertoire of calls(e.g., warning or territorial calls) orconsist of variations on a theme(such as birdsong) or be a continuoussignal (e.g., the honeybee’s dance,(15)which transmits information on foodsources). But the grammar inherent inhuman language enables us, in thewords of Wilhelm von Humboldt, to “make infinite use of finite means.”

The author most probably uses the word “defines” in line 1 to mean

A. distinguishes
B. limits
C. depicts
D. illustrates
E. interprets

Correct Answer: A

Option (A) is correct. The passage discusses what sets human language apart, or distinguishes it, from animal communication. According to the passage, the distinctiveness of human communication defines humanity.

Grammatical language defines humanity. The complex vocalizationsof mammals such as dolphins andLineprimates have been the subject of(5)many studies, but so far, no naturalanimal communication appears to havea power of expression that is in anyway close to human language.Animal communication can be based(10)on a limited repertoire of calls(e.g., warning or territorial calls) orconsist of variations on a theme(such as birdsong) or be a continuoussignal (e.g., the honeybee’s dance,(15)which transmits information on foodsources). But the grammar inherent inhuman language enables us, in thewords of Wilhelm von Humboldt, to “make infinite use of finite means.”

The author mentions studies of dolphins and primates most likely in order to

A. note an exception to a generalization about language
B. suggest directions for future research on animal communication
C. provide a contrast with honeybees and songbirds
D. support an assertion about grammar and humanity
E. indicate animals whose communication has not been adequately studied

Correct Answer: D

Option (D) is correct. The assertion of the first sentence of the passage is that humans are set apart by grammatical language. According to the second sentence, studies of dolphin and (nonhuman) primate communication have not revealed a parallel to human language. This supports the assertion of the first sentence.

While there is general agreementabout the significance of the HarlemRenaissance, there is less accord onLinewhen the movement begins and ends,(5)since it is not marked by a consistentset of aesthetics or a unifying style. Literature from the period covered awide range of forms, from classicsonnets to modernist verse to blues(10)and jazz aesthetics to folklore. Themovement is associated with the1920s, the Jazz Age, but just when itemerged and disappeared is a source of debate.

(15) Literary scholars Cheryl Wall andGloria Hull have observed that narrowtime and geographical parameters forthe Harlem Renaissance work againstwomen, most of whom published in a(20)scattered way across a continuum oftime and from regions outside Harlem.Given that point of view, themovement’s limits should be tied to two landmark events: the production of(25)Angelina Weld Grimké’s play Rachel (1916) and the publication of Zora NealHurston’s novel Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937). Neither of theseworks was written in Harlem or in the(30)1920s. But bracketing the Renaissancewith these two events pins the periodto African American-authored creativeliterature rather than to political oreconomic events, which were(35)dominated by White men. These limitsalso underscore the importance ofwomen to the movement, despitecircumstances of gender that limited their ability to get into print.

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Question:

Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

A. An unresolved question is pointed out, and then a possible answer to the question is put forth.
B. A movement is defined, and then several new illustrations to enhance that definition are presented.
C. A period in history is described, and then some pivotal events that occurred during the period are discussed.
D. A creative movement is summarized, and then its major contributors are discussed in detail.
E. An ongoing controversy is presented, and then the history of that controversy is examined.

Correct Answer: A

Option (A) is correct. In the first paragraph, the passage points out a question about the beginning and ending dates of the Harlem Renaissance movement. The second paragraph suggests the publication dates of two particular works as landmark events bracketing the movement.

While there is general agreementabout the significance of the HarlemRenaissance, there is less accord onLinewhen the movement begins and ends,(5)since it is not marked by a consistentset of aesthetics or a unifying style. Literature from the period covered awide range of forms, from classicsonnets to modernist verse to blues(10)and jazz aesthetics to folklore. Themovement is associated with the1920s, the Jazz Age, but just when itemerged and disappeared is a source of debate.

(15) Literary scholars Cheryl Wall andGloria Hull have observed that narrowtime and geographical parameters forthe Harlem Renaissance work againstwomen, most of whom published in a(20)scattered way across a continuum oftime and from regions outside Harlem.Given that point of view, themovement’s limits should be tied to two landmark events: the production of(25)Angelina Weld Grimké’s play Rachel (1916) and the publication of Zora NealHurston’s novel Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937). Neither of theseworks was written in Harlem or in the(30)1920s. But bracketing the Renaissancewith these two events pins the periodto African American-authored creativeliterature rather than to political oreconomic events, which were(35)dominated by White men. These limitsalso underscore the importance ofwomen to the movement, despitecircumstances of gender that limited their ability to get into print.

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Question:

The author notes that the Harlem Renaissance is “not marked by a consistent set of aesthetics or a unifying style” (lines 5-6) primarily in order to identify

A. a flaw in the literary works associated with the Harlem Renaissance
B. an issue that makes dating the Harlem Renaissance difficult
C. a perspective on the Harlem Renaissance that Wall and Hull disagree with
D. a problem with the Harlem Renaissance that Wall and Hull have overlooked
E. a controversy in Harlem Renaissance scholarship that has recently been resolved

Correct Answer: B

Option (B) is correct. According to the first sentence of the passage, the absence of a unifying style or aesthetic in the Harlem Renaissance hinders agreement about when the movement began and ended.

While there is general agreementabout the significance of the HarlemRenaissance, there is less accord onLinewhen the movement begins and ends,(5)since it is not marked by a consistentset of aesthetics or a unifying style. Literature from the period covered awide range of forms, from classicsonnets to modernist verse to blues(10)and jazz aesthetics to folklore. Themovement is associated with the1920s, the Jazz Age, but just when itemerged and disappeared is a source of debate.

(15) Literary scholars Cheryl Wall andGloria Hull have observed that narrowtime and geographical parameters forthe Harlem Renaissance work againstwomen, most of whom published in a(20)scattered way across a continuum oftime and from regions outside Harlem.Given that point of view, themovement’s limits should be tied to two landmark events: the production of(25)Angelina Weld Grimké’s play Rachel (1916) and the publication of Zora NealHurston’s novel Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937). Neither of theseworks was written in Harlem or in the(30)1920s. But bracketing the Renaissancewith these two events pins the periodto African American-authored creativeliterature rather than to political oreconomic events, which were(35)dominated by White men. These limitsalso underscore the importance ofwomen to the movement, despitecircumstances of gender that limited their ability to get into print.

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Question:

As used in line 8, “range” most nearly means

A. distance
B. scope
C. region
D. aggregate
E. sequence

Correct Answer: B

Option (B) is correct. In the reference to a “wide range of forms,” “range” refers to the extent, or “scope,” of the various forms that may be found in the Harlem Renaissance movement.

While there is general agreementabout the significance of the HarlemRenaissance, there is less accord onLinewhen the movement begins and ends,(5)since it is not marked by a consistentset of aesthetics or a unifying style. Literature from the period covered awide range of forms, from classicsonnets to modernist verse to blues(10)and jazz aesthetics to folklore. Themovement is associated with the1920s, the Jazz Age, but just when itemerged and disappeared is a source of debate.

(15) Literary scholars Cheryl Wall andGloria Hull have observed that narrowtime and geographical parameters forthe Harlem Renaissance work againstwomen, most of whom published in a(20)scattered way across a continuum oftime and from regions outside Harlem.Given that point of view, themovement’s limits should be tied to two landmark events: the production of(25)Angelina Weld Grimké’s play Rachel (1916) and the publication of Zora NealHurston’s novel Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937). Neither of theseworks was written in Harlem or in the(30)1920s. But bracketing the Renaissancewith these two events pins the periodto African American-authored creativeliterature rather than to political oreconomic events, which were(35)dominated by White men. These limitsalso underscore the importance ofwomen to the movement, despitecircumstances of gender that limited their ability to get into print.

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Question:

It can be inferred that Cheryl Wall and Gloria Hull view the “narrow time and geographical parameters for the Harlem Renaissance” (lines 16-18) as

A. acceptable, but less accurate than currently established parameters
B. necessary, because these parameters support the traditional understanding of the Harlem Renaissance
C. undesirable, but too widely accepted to change
D. unfortunate, because important works might be excluded from the Harlem Renaissance
E. suspicious, because critics, rather than writers, coined the term “Harlem Renaissance”

Correct Answer: D

Option (D) is correct. The second sentence of the second paragraph of the passage mentions works whose dates would provide broader time parameters for the Harlem Renaissance, with the implication that less-narrow parameters would exclude fewer works by women, who in the point of view attributed to Wall and Hull, published “in a scattered way across a continuum of time.”

While there is general agreementabout the significance of the HarlemRenaissance, there is less accord onLinewhen the movement begins and ends,(5)since it is not marked by a consistentset of aesthetics or a unifying style. Literature from the period covered awide range of forms, from classicsonnets to modernist verse to blues(10)and jazz aesthetics to folklore. Themovement is associated with the1920s, the Jazz Age, but just when itemerged and disappeared is a source of debate.

(15) Literary scholars Cheryl Wall andGloria Hull have observed that narrowtime and geographical parameters forthe Harlem Renaissance work againstwomen, most of whom published in a(20)scattered way across a continuum oftime and from regions outside Harlem.Given that point of view, themovement’s limits should be tied to two landmark events: the production of(25)Angelina Weld Grimké’s play Rachel (1916) and the publication of Zora NealHurston’s novel Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937). Neither of theseworks was written in Harlem or in the(30)1920s. But bracketing the Renaissancewith these two events pins the periodto African American-authored creativeliterature rather than to political oreconomic events, which were(35)dominated by White men. These limitsalso underscore the importance ofwomen to the movement, despitecircumstances of gender that limited their ability to get into print.

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Question:

The passage suggests that the “two landmark events” (line 24) are significant for which of the following reasons?

A. The dates of the two events are far enough apart to allow more works to be included in the Harlem Renaissance.
B. The works associated with the two events are better known than most works produced during the Harlem Renaissance.
C. The works associated with the two events accurately represent the aesthetic range of the Harlem Renaissance.
D. The works associated with the two events are closely associated with both Harlem and the 1920s.
E. The two events more closely tie the Harlem Renaissance to key political and economic events of the 1920s.

Correct Answer: A

Option (A) is correct. The previous sentence underlined two scholars’ dissatisfaction with “narrow time … parameters for the Harlem Renaissance.” The 21 years between 1916 and 1937, the dates of the “two landmark events,” afford greater scope for inclusion of works in the movement than does a strict association of the movement with the 1920s.

The destruction of free-rangingherds of buffalo on the American GreatPlains occurred in the 1870s, the resultLineof businesses’ being interested only in(5)the animals’ hides. But why was urbanAmerica eager to pay good money formillions of buffalo hides when cattlehides were readily available close athand? The answer is simple. Before(10)the invention of rubberized belting foruse in factories, industrial Americarequired leather belts to connect steamengines with all the new machines thatwere turning out manufactured goods(15)in unprecedented quantity. Buffalohides, being larger and thicker thancattle hides, could be made into stronger and more durable drive belts.

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Question:

Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

A. It discusses a problem and then evaluates possible solutions to that problem.
B. It mentions a phenomenon and then explains how it came about.
C. It defines a technical term and then illustrates it with an example.
D. It compares an outmoded manufacturing technique with a more modern method.
E. It challenges a widely held belief about American industrialization.

Correct Answer: B

Option (B) is correct. The phenomenon mentioned in the passage is the destruction of buffalo herds for hides in the 1870s. The explanation provided in the passage is the utility of buffalo hides for meeting the demand for industrial drive belts.

The destruction of free-rangingherds of buffalo on the American GreatPlains occurred in the 1870s, the resultLineof businesses’ being interested only in(5)the animals’ hides. But why was urbanAmerica eager to pay good money formillions of buffalo hides when cattlehides were readily available close athand? The answer is simple. Before(10)the invention of rubberized belting foruse in factories, industrial Americarequired leather belts to connect steamengines with all the new machines thatwere turning out manufactured goods(15)in unprecedented quantity. Buffalohides, being larger and thicker thancattle hides, could be made into stronger and more durable drive belts.

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Question:

According to the passage, which of the following was a drawback to the use of cattle hides?

A. They were not as readily available as buffalo hides.
B. They were more expensive than buffalo hides.
C. They were not as durable as buffalo hides.
D. They were difficult to make into belts.
E. They were often weakened by steam.

Correct Answer: C

Option (C) is correct. The final sentence of the passage states that drive belts from buffalo hides were “stronger and more durable” than those from cattle hides.

The destruction of free-rangingherds of buffalo on the American GreatPlains occurred in the 1870s, the resultLineof businesses’ being interested only in(5)the animals’ hides. But why was urbanAmerica eager to pay good money formillions of buffalo hides when cattlehides were readily available close athand? The answer is simple. Before(10)the invention of rubberized belting foruse in factories, industrial Americarequired leather belts to connect steamengines with all the new machines thatwere turning out manufactured goods(15)in unprecedented quantity. Buffalohides, being larger and thicker thancattle hides, could be made into stronger and more durable drive belts.

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Question:

The passage suggests that with the invention of rubberized belting, which of the following probably occurred?

A. Factory productivity in the United States dramatically decreased.
B. The price of buffalo hides rose sharply.
C. Businesses came to prefer cattle hides to buffalo hides.
D. Buffalo hides became less sought after for use in factories.
E. Steam engines became less important in the manufacturing process.

Correct Answer: D

Option (D) is correct. The next-to-last sentence of the passage asserts that leather drive belts were in demand “before the invention of rubberized belting,” implying that leather drive belts were needed less, and therefore presumably “less sought after,” following the invention of rubberized belting.

Not unaware of the increasing popularity of the pseudosciences, such as phrenology and mesmerism, in 1838 a group of scientists in Boston formed the Lazzaroni, an exclusive society whose membership was limited to the “best scientific minds of the country” and whose purpose was to keep the “progress of science” from being threatened by “charlatanism and quackery.”

Question:

The use of quotations in the passage suggests which of the following about the members of the Lazzaroni?

A. They regretted their previous support of the pseudosciences.
B. They feared that the pseudosciences were detrimental the true sciences.
C. They believed that their mission was to better understand the pseudosciences.
D. They planned to use scientific methods to discredit the pseudosciences.
E. They did not fully comprehend the degree of popularity of the pseudosciences.

Correct Answer: B

Option (B) is correct. “Charlatanism and quackery” is a pejorative characterization of the pseudosciences, suggesting that the members of the Lazzaroni, who according to the passage saw themselves as among the “best scientific minds of the country,” perceived the increasing popularity of the pseudosciences as threatening to “the progress of science.”

The life of French novelist Marcel Proust presents a challenge to a biographer, because there is a ludicrous gap between Proust’s early life and his mature art. A sycophantic snob and posturing dandy, he frittered away his youth trying to ingratiate himself with the idle rich. In his masterpiece, Remembrance of Things Past, however, he transformed those frivolous experiences into a memorable meditation on the nature of time and memory and loss.

Question:

The passage is primarily concerned with

A. identifying the best-known work of a particular writer
B. describing a particular writer’s views on biography
C. suggesting that most novels are based on their writers’ own experiences
D. criticizing a biography written by a particular artist
E. discussing the relationship between a particular writer’s experiences and his work

Correct Answer: E

Option (E) is correct. The passage discusses the incongruity between writer Marcel Proust’s early life experiences and his mature work as represented by Remembrance of Things Past.

We know quite a lot about the universe, but there is much more we still do not know. About 80 percent of it, for instance, does not exist as visible matter, but as something invisible and mysterious — so-called dark matter. Scientists have not yet succeeded in detecting the sub-atomic particles thought to comprise this dark matter. Suppose they never succeed? That will mean that a substantial amount of the universe will continue to consist of material that we cannot perceive, even with our most advanced tools.

Question:

The author suggests which of the following about the fact that scientists have not yet succeeded in detecting dark matter?

A. It has generated widespread criticism of the scientific establishment.
B. It has stimulated the public’s interest in the search for dark matter.
C. It is testimony to how much we still have to learn about the structure of the universe.
D. It only recently became a matter of concern for a select group of scientists.
E. It has stimulated the development of new tools for searching for dark matter.

Correct Answer: C

Option (C) is correct. The passage asserts that 80 percent of the universe consists of dark matter, which is “invisible and mysterious” and, therefore, poorly understood.

In the early years of the twentiethcentury, successful courtroom lawyerswere little different from ham actors inLinemelodramas. By going through every(5)histrionic trick in the theatricalrepertoire, the greatest of them couldmake the jury weep. The days of the great orators have long gone, though.Juries today would laugh out loud if(10)one of the old-style attorneys appearedbefore them now, displaying orotunddelivery, false emotions, and verbalpomposity. Society has changed,language has changed, and television(15)has brought the courtroom — fictionaland real — into everyone’s consciousness.

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Question:

The passage suggests that television has had which of the following effects?

A. People have become familiar with courtrooms and what occurs in them.
B. People have come to view the courtroom as a place of high drama.
C. Lawyers have learned effective courtroom strategies by watching actors.
D. Jurors’ decisions have been increasingly influenced by television dramas.
E. People have become increasingly less willing to serve as jurors.

Correct Answer: A

Option (A) is correct. The final sentence of the passage suggests that televised depictions of courtroom proceedings have made people more familiar with what occurs in courtrooms.

In the early years of the twentiethcentury, successful courtroom lawyerswere little different from ham actors inLinemelodramas. By going through every(5)histrionic trick in the theatricalrepertoire, the greatest of them couldmake the jury weep. The days of the great orators have long gone, though.Juries today would laugh out loud if(10)one of the old-style attorneys appearedbefore them now, displaying orotunddelivery, false emotions, and verbalpomposity. Society has changed,language has changed, and television(15)has brought the courtroom — fictionaland real — into everyone’s consciousness.

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Question:

The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. discuss a kind of courtroom behavior that has passed out of fashion
B. imply that legal proceedings are not as objective as most people think they are
C. suggest that today’s lawyers possess the same kinds of talents as television actors
D. show how the public’s opinion of the legal profession has changed over time
E. contrast real-life courtroom drama with courtroom drama depicted on television

Correct Answer: A

Option (A) is correct. The first two sentences of the passage describe a kind of histrionic behavior formerly displayed by courtroom lawyers. The rest of the passage notes that this type of behavior has passed out of fashion and it provides an explanation for why it has passed out of fashion.

In the early years of the twentiethcentury, successful courtroom lawyerswere little different from ham actors inLinemelodramas. By going through every(5)histrionic trick in the theatricalrepertoire, the greatest of them couldmake the jury weep. The days of the great orators have long gone, though.Juries today would laugh out loud if(10)one of the old-style attorneys appearedbefore them now, displaying orotunddelivery, false emotions, and verbalpomposity. Society has changed,language has changed, and television(15)has brought the courtroom — fictionaland real — into everyone’s consciousness.

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Question:

According to the passage, juries today would probably respond to a lawyer who was a “great” orator of the kind mentioned in line 8 with

A. admiration
B. deference
C. bewilderment
D. jealousy
E. derision

Correct Answer: E

Option (E) is correct. The fourth sentence of the passage asserts that juries today would “laugh out loud” at the old style of courtroom oratory.

The fact that climate change couldoccur suddenly, perhaps withdire consequences, has gainedLine currency in recent years as many(5)general interest science magazineshave run feature articles on the subjectof what is usually called “abrupt”climate change. Perhaps this has beena bit too much of a good thing, in that(10)it has led to excessive treatments likethe one in The Day After Tomorrow, the2004 movie in which Los Angeles isleveled by tornadoes and New YorkCity, in a matter of days, is buried(15)under mountains of ice. This emphasison abruptness has been misleadingsince the question is not just how fastclimate change might occur but alsowhether the change would be drastic(20)enough to threaten the foundations of civilizations.

To judge from the behavior of theinsurance industry, this message isonly just beginning to sink in. The(25)fortunes of insurance companies willdepend on whether the damage doneby global warming is merelyincrementally worse than damage donein the recent past, or whether the(30)effects are drastically different in kind.But most insurance companiescontinue to rely mainly on historicalextrapolations from past patternsrather than on dynamic climate models(35)to assess climate risks. If it turns outthat they are greatly underestimatingfuture damages, as will likely be thecase, the consequences will be serious.

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Question:

The author’s attitude toward The Day After Tomorrow (line 11) can best be described as one of

A. outrage
B. alarm
C. disapproval
D. embarrassment
E. enthusiasm

Correct Answer: C

Option (C) is correct. The author’s use of words like “excessive” (second sentence) and “misleading” (third sentence) convey a disapproving attitude toward The Day After Tomorrow.

The fact that climate change couldoccur suddenly, perhaps withdire consequences, has gainedLine currency in recent years as many(5)general?interest science magazineshave run feature articles on the subjectof what is usually called “abrupt”climate change. Perhaps this has beena bit too much of a good thing, in that(10)it has led to excessive treatments likethe one in The Day After Tomorrow, the2004 movie in which Los Angeles isleveled by tornadoes and New YorkCity, in a matter of days, is buried(15)under mountains of ice. This emphasison abruptness has been misleadingsince the question is not just how fastclimate change might occur but alsowhether the change would be drastic(20)enough to threaten the foundations of civilizations.

To judge from the behavior of theinsurance industry, this message isonly just beginning to sink in. The(25)fortunes of insurance companies willdepend on whether the damage doneby global warming is merelyincrementally worse than damage donein the recent past, or whether the(30)effects are drastically different in kind.But most insurance companiescontinue to rely mainly on historicalextrapolations from past patternsrather than on dynamic climate models(35)to assess climate risks. If it turns outthat they are greatly underestimatingfuture damages, as will likely be thecase, the consequences will be serious.

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Question:

In line 23, “this message” refers to which of the following?

A. The scope of the damage resulting from climate change could be unprecedented.
B. The idea that climate change will occur abruptly is compelling.
C. Climate change is occurring more rapidly than most people realize.
D. Insurance companies need to study historical climate change to predict future climate change.
E. Insurance companies consistently overestimate the cost of repairing damages due to climate change.

Correct Answer: A

Option (A) is correct. The next-to-last sentence of the passage says that most insurance companies rely mainly on historical extrapolations from past patterns. The author suggests that the insurance companies are not heeding the “message” that future damages could be much greater than these past patterns suggest, and, therefore, would be unprecedented.

The fact that climate change couldoccur suddenly, perhaps withdire consequences, has gainedLine currency in recent years as many(5)general?interest science magazineshave run feature articles on the subjectof what is usually called “abrupt”climate change. Perhaps this has beena bit too much of a good thing, in that(10)it has led to excessive treatments likethe one in The Day After Tomorrow, the2004 movie in which Los Angeles isleveled by tornadoes and New YorkCity, in a matter of days, is buried(15)under mountains of ice. This emphasison abruptness has been misleadingsince the question is not just how fastclimate change might occur but alsowhether the change would be drastic(20)enough to threaten the foundations of civilizations.

To judge from the behavior of theinsurance industry, this message isonly just beginning to sink in. The(25)fortunes of insurance companies willdepend on whether the damage doneby global warming is merelyincrementally worse than damage donein the recent past, or whether the(30)effects are drastically different in kind.But most insurance companiescontinue to rely mainly on historicalextrapolations from past patternsrather than on dynamic climate models(35)to assess climate risks. If it turns outthat they are greatly underestimatingfuture damages, as will likely be thecase, the consequences will be serious.

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Question:

In the second paragraph, the author suggests that the insurance industry’s response to potential “climate risks” (line 35) has been

A. largely appropriate
B. disturbingly aggressive
C. understandably skeptical
D. unfairly implemented
E. overly conservative

Correct Answer: E

Option (E) is correct. In the final sentence of the passage the author indicates that insurance companies’ current risk models, which rely heavily on past patterns, probably are “greatly underestimating” future damages from climate change and that insurers’ response to risk is, therefore, too conservative in its approach.

The fact that climate change couldoccur suddenly, perhaps withdire consequences, has gainedLine currency in recent years as many(5)general?interest science magazineshave run feature articles on the subjectof what is usually called “abrupt”climate change. Perhaps this has beena bit too much of a good thing, in that(10)it has led to excessive treatments likethe one in The Day After Tomorrow, the2004 movie in which Los Angeles isleveled by tornadoes and New YorkCity, in a matter of days, is buried(15)under mountains of ice. This emphasison abruptness has been misleadingsince the question is not just how fastclimate change might occur but alsowhether the change would be drastic(20)enough to threaten the foundations of civilizations.

To judge from the behavior of theinsurance industry, this message isonly just beginning to sink in. The(25)fortunes of insurance companies willdepend on whether the damage doneby global warming is merelyincrementally worse than damage donein the recent past, or whether the(30)effects are drastically different in kind.But most insurance companiescontinue to rely mainly on historicalextrapolations from past patternsrather than on dynamic climate models(35)to assess climate risks. If it turns outthat they are greatly underestimatingfuture damages, as will likely be thecase, the consequences will be serious.

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Question:

The author would most likely recommend that insurance companies do which of the following?

A. Reassess the means by which they evaluate climate risks
B. Consider the possibility that abrupt climate change is unlikely to occur
C. Apply the study of past climate change to the prediction of future climate change
D. Use historical data to confirm the reliability of the dynamic climate-change models currently in use
E. Ignore the risk of climate change since the probability of catastrophic change is small

Correct Answer: A

Option (A) is correct. The last two sentences of the passage argue that insurers’ evaluations of climate risks are dangerously inadequate, suggesting the author believes the means of these evaluations should be reassessed.

Has architect Frank Gehry receivedenough critical acclaim to be called nota designer but an artist? Will he beLineviewed as a successor to Frank Lloyd(5)Wright, the great architect of thetwentieth century, and thus a majorfigure in the history of architecture?Wright, like most great architects, leftliterary evidence of his ideology and(10)design processes. The writings ofanother majestic architect, LeCorbusier, provided the theory for aquintessentially modern view of theworld. Gehry has often given(15)interviews but has produced nowritings. Still, the powerful impact ofGehry’s architectural designs is moreimportant than tracts or theories hemight have written. Designs, not(20) words, make an architect great.

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Question:

The passage is primarily concerned with

A. explaining why Gehry has failed to write about his ideas
B. reproaching critics for their failure to recognize Gehry’s abilities
C. considering whether Gehry will be viewed in the future as a great architect
D. comparing the writings of Wright and Le Corbusier with the interviews given by Gehry
E. describing an effect that Gehry’s work has had on twentieth-century architecture

Correct Answer: C

Option (C) is correct. The passage compares Gehry with twentieth-century architects who are acknowledged as great, and it considers the bearing on Gehry’s legacy of factors that influence perception of architectural greatness.

Has architect Frank Gehry receivedenough critical acclaim to be called nota designer but an artist? Will he beLineviewed as a successor to Frank Lloyd(5)Wright, the great architect of thetwentieth century, and thus a majorfigure in the history of architecture?Wright, like most great architects, leftliterary evidence of his ideology and(10)design processes. The writings ofanother majestic architect, LeCorbusier, provided the theory for aquintessentially modern view of theworld. Gehry has often given(15)interviews but has produced nowritings. Still, the powerful impact ofGehry’s architectural designs is moreimportant than tracts or theories hemight have written. Designs, not(20) words, make an architect great.

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Question:

According to the passage, Frank Gehry differs from Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier in that Gehry

A. has not written about his ideology or theories
B. has had more role models to inspire him
C. has designed fewer buildings
D. welcomes critical reviews of his work
E. enjoys granting interviews

Correct Answer: A

Option (A) is correct. The passage says that Wright left “literary evidence” of his ideology and design processes and that Le Corbusier left writings that “provided the theory for a quintessentially modern view of the world.” The passage says that Gehry “has produced no writings.”

Has architect Frank Gehry receivedenough critical acclaim to be called nota designer but an artist? Will he beLineviewed as a successor to Frank Lloyd(5)Wright, the great architect of thetwentieth century, and thus a majorfigure in the history of architecture?Wright, like most great architects, leftliterary evidence of his ideology and(10)design processes. The writings ofanother majestic architect, LeCorbusier, provided the theory for aquintessentially modern view of theworld. Gehry has often given(15)interviews but has produced nowritings. Still, the powerful impact ofGehry’s architectural designs is moreimportant than tracts or theories hemight have written. Designs, not(20) words, make an architect great.

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Question:

The author’s attitude toward Gehry’s designs is best described as one of

A. admiration
B. ambivalence
C. indifference
D. skepticism
E. bewilderment

Correct Answer: A

Option (A) is correct. The author’s reference to “the powerful impact of Gehry’s architectural designs” and the assertion in the final sentence that “designs … make an architect great” suggest admiration for Gehry’s designs.

Jazz’s prestige suffers from the fallacy that it is a product of emotion and not intellect. As a response to such misunderstandings, jazz trumpeter Wynton Marsalis invokes the intellectualism of jazz practice as a means of proving its status as art. The lack of a full array of written scores does not signify a shortcoming: “What is so amazing is that [jazz musicians] came up with as intellectual a system as was eventually developed, without the emphasis being on written music.”

Question:

It can be inferred from the passage that Wynton Marsalis would agree with which of the following statements?

A. Not all music that has a written score is intellectual.
B. Music need not have a written score to be intellectual.
C. Jazz is unique in that it is intellectual without the presence of written scores.
D. The prestige of a musical genre should not be related to its intellectualism.
E. Emotion and intellect are not mutually exclusive qualities of music.

Correct Answer: B

Option (B) is correct. The statement in the second sentence of the passage that Marsalis “invokes the intellectualism of jazz practice” and the quotation of Marsalis in the final sentence concerning jazz’s lack of emphasis on written music suggest that Marsalis would not regard a written score as essential to the intellectual quality of music.

The drive to regulate sweatshop working conditions in the United States in the 1890s required the cooperation of many groups. The most prominent leader of that campaign was Florence Kelley of Chicago. She devised a strategy that eventually came to dominate legislative remedies for sweatshop labor. Since sweatshops depended on women’s labor, Kelley reasoned, passage and enforcement of an eight?hour day for women would drive sweatshops out of business because their inefficient methods could not produce profits except through longer hours.

Question:

The passage provides information for answering most fully which of the following questions?

A. How did Kelley first become interested in regulating sweatshop labor?
B. What percentage of Chicago’s workforce was employed in sweatshops during the 1890s?
C. How did sweatshop working conditions in Kelley’s time differ from those today?
D. Why did Kelley believe that her legislative strategy would be effective?
E. What impact did Kelley’s work have on the efforts of labor unions in Chicago?

Correct Answer: D

Option (D) is correct. The final sentence of the passage describes Kelley’s reasoning regarding the effectiveness of her legislative strategy for regulating sweatshops.

Radio data obtained in 1996indicated the wall of a south polarcrater on the Moon to be moreLinereflective than expected, and ice was(5)the most likely explanation. Whyshould the Moon — a world with noatmosphere and whose rocks containalmost no water — have ice? By afortuitous coincidence, the Moon’s(10)rotation axis tilts in such a way as toput the floors of some polar craterseternally in shadow. These floorsbecome very cold and trap randommolecules of water, which might come(15)from the tails of passing comets, oreven comet impacts. Impactselsewhere on the Moon wouldredistribute rock and soil, so any ice would be mixed with lots of dirt.

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Question:

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument presented in the passage?

A. Meteorites riddled with ice have collided with the Moon.
B. Reflectivity can be caused by a number of elements.
C. It is possible that the Moon’s rotation axis may change.
D. Radio data about the Moon has been obtained since 1996.
E. Orbits around the Moon’s equator fail to reveal any signs of ice.

Correct Answer: A

Option (A) is correct. The question encourages test takers to select a choice that would strengthen the claim that “passing comets, or even comet impacts” are possibly the source of the water molecules that later develop into ice on the Moon.

Radio data obtained in 1996indicated the wall of a south polarcrater on the Moon to be moreLinereflective than expected, and ice was(5)the most likely explanation. Whyshould the Moon—a world with noatmosphere and whose rocks containalmost no water—have ice? By afortuitous coincidence, the Moon’s(10)rotation axis tilts in such a way as toput the floors of some polar craterseternally in shadow. These floorsbecome very cold and trap randommolecules of water, which might come(15)from the tails of passing comets, oreven comet impacts. Impactselsewhere on the Moon wouldredistribute rock and soil, so any ice would be mixed with lots of dirt.

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Question:

The author most likely mentions “Impacts elsewhere on the Moon” (lines 16-17) in order to

A. change the topic from water to impacts
B. weaken the claim that the observed reflectivity is due to ice
C. elaborate on the relevance of the Moon’s rotation axis tilt
D. provide a summary about the possibility of ice on the Moon
E. strengthen the claim made about comets

Correct Answer: E

Option (E) is correct. The question encourages test takers to evaluate the significance of a rhetorical choice in the author’s argument. In the context of the passage, the reference to “impacts elsewhere on the Moon” helps to substantiate the claim about how water molecules might be accounted for on the Moon.

Radio data obtained in 1996indicated the wall of a south polarcrater on the Moon to be moreLinereflective than expected, and ice was(5)the most likely explanation. Whyshould the Moon—a world with noatmosphere and whose rocks containalmost no water—have ice? By afortuitous coincidence, the Moon’s(10)rotation axis tilts in such a way as toput the floors of some polar craterseternally in shadow. These floorsbecome very cold and trap randommolecules of water, which might come(15)from the tails of passing comets, oreven comet impacts. Impactselsewhere on the Moon wouldredistribute rock and soil, so any ice would be mixed with lots of dirt.

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Question:

The passage indicates which of the following about water on the Moon?

A. There is sufficient water on the Moon to support life.
B. Although the Moon used to be rich in water, it now has very little water.
C. Having an atmosphere is necessary for water to exist on the Moon.
D. Comets are the most likely source of water on the Moon.
E. Craters everywhere on the Moon appear to contain significant amounts of water

Correct Answer: D

Option (D) is correct. The question requires test takers to recognize the main claim in the passage about comets’ being the likely source of water on the Moon.

Passage 1

In January 2002, Judge Louis Pollakmade headlines with a ruling on theadmissibility of fingerprints. TheLineopinion of the distinguished judge and(5)former academic was essentiallythat fingerprint identification was not alegitimate form of scientific evidence.Fingerprints not scientific? Theconclusions of fingerprint examiners(10)not admissible in court? Fingerprintshave been used as evidence in theU.S. courtroom for nearly 100 years.They have long been considered the gold standard of forensic science and(15)are widely viewed as an especiallypowerful and indisputable form ofevidence. What could Judge Pollakhave been thinking? About six weekslater, Judge Pollak changed his mind.(20)And yet, Judge Pollak’s first opinion was the better one.

Passage 2

Recently, the number of challenges tofingerprint evidence has beenincreasing. Given fingerprinting’s long(25)standing as the gold standard ofhuman identification, this may seemsurprising, but there are severalreasons for this development.Foremost is DNA identification, which(30)has not only transformed forensicscience but also created a new set ofstandards that have raisedexpectations for forensic science.Even given these new expectations,(35)however, how can fingerprint analysis,so long the paradigm for humanidentification, be subject to seriousquestion? The answer lies inrecognizing the distinction between a(40)latent print (one taken from a crimescene), and a rolled or inked print (aprint taken under controlled conditions).

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Question:

Which best describes the relationship between Passage 1 and Passage 2 ?

A. Passage 1 defines a term that is discussed in greater depth in Passage 2.
B. Passage 1 presents a viewpoint that is undermined by the argument in Passage 2.
C. Passage 1 provides a concrete example of a trend that is mentioned in Passage 2.
D. Passage 2 disagrees about the reliability of the evidence discussed in Passage 1.
E. Passage 2 recounts a personal experience to challenge a claim made in Passage 1.

Correct Answer: C

Option (C) is correct. The ruling by Judge Pollak in the first two sentences of Passage 1 is an example of the trend discussed in general terms in Passage 2.

Passage 1

In January 2002, Judge Louis Pollakmade headlines with a ruling on theadmissibility of fingerprints. TheLineopinion of the distinguished judge and(5)former academic was essentiallythat fingerprint identification was not alegitimate form of scientific evidence.Fingerprints not scientific? Theconclusions of fingerprint examiners(10)not admissible in court? Fingerprintshave been used as evidence in theU.S. courtroom for nearly 100 years.They have long been considered the gold standard of forensic science and(15)are widely viewed as an especiallypowerful and indisputable form ofevidence. What could Judge Pollakhave been thinking? About six weekslater, Judge Pollak changed his mind.(20)And yet, Judge Pollak’s first opinion was the better one.

Passage 2

Recently, the number of challenges tofingerprint evidence has beenincreasing. Given fingerprinting’s long(25)standing as the gold standard ofhuman identification, this may seemsurprising, but there are severalreasons for this development.Foremost is DNA identification, which(30)has not only transformed forensicscience but also created a new set ofstandards that have raisedexpectations for forensic science.Even given these new expectations,(35)however, how can fingerprint analysis,so long the paradigm for humanidentification, be subject to seriousquestion? The answer lies inrecognizing the distinction between a(40)latent print (one taken from a crimescene), and a rolled or inked print (aprint taken under controlled conditions).

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Question:

In the context in which it appears, “form” (line 7) most nearly means

A. shape
B. idea
C. type
D. conduct
E. document

Correct Answer: C

Option (C) is correct. The question asks test takers to select the word that is most similar in meaning. In this context, “form” means the kind or “type.”

Passage 1

In January 2002, Judge Louis Pollakmade headlines with a ruling on theadmissibility of fingerprints. TheLineopinion of the distinguished judge and(5)former academic was essentiallythat fingerprint identification was not alegitimate form of scientific evidence.Fingerprints not scientific? Theconclusions of fingerprint examiners(10)not admissible in court? Fingerprintshave been used as evidence in theU.S. courtroom for nearly 100 years.They have long been considered the gold standard of forensic science and(15)are widely viewed as an especiallypowerful and indisputable form ofevidence. What could Judge Pollakhave been thinking? About six weekslater, Judge Pollak changed his mind.(20)And yet, Judge Pollak’s first opinion was the better one.

Passage 2

Recently, the number of challenges tofingerprint evidence has beenincreasing. Given fingerprinting’s long(25)standing as the gold standard ofhuman identification, this may seemsurprising, but there are severalreasons for this development.Foremost is DNA identification, which(30)has not only transformed forensicscience but also created a new set ofstandards that have raisedexpectations for forensic science.Even given these new expectations,(35)however, how can fingerprint analysis,so long the paradigm for humanidentification, be subject to seriousquestion? The answer lies inrecognizing the distinction between a(40)latent print (one taken from a crimescene), and a rolled or inked print (aprint taken under controlled conditions).

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Question:

The reference to the “gold standard” in both passages serves to

A. emphasize the high quality of the fingerprints that are typically taken
B. highlight the superiority of scientific evidence over eyewitness accounts
C. illustrate the prestige associated with high?profile court cases
D. indicate the accuracy of fingerprints in correctly solving crimes
E. convey the high regard for fingerprints as a form of unique identification

Correct Answer: E

Option (E) is correct. The use of “gold standard” in connection with fingerprinting implies a view of fingerprinting as a benchmark of excellence by which other forms of unique identification are measured.

Passage 1

In January 2002, Judge Louis Pollakmade headlines with a ruling on theadmissibility of fingerprints. TheLineopinion of the distinguished judge and(5)former academic was essentiallythat fingerprint identification was not alegitimate form of scientific evidence.Fingerprints not scientific? Theconclusions of fingerprint examiners(10)not admissible in court? Fingerprintshave been used as evidence in theU.S. courtroom for nearly 100 years.They have long been considered the gold standard of forensic science and(15)are widely viewed as an especiallypowerful and indisputable form ofevidence. What could Judge Pollakhave been thinking? About six weekslater, Judge Pollak changed his mind.(20)And yet, Judge Pollak’s first opinion was the better one.

Passage 2

Recently, the number of challenges tofingerprint evidence has beenincreasing. Given fingerprinting’s long(25)standing as the gold standard ofhuman identification, this may seemsurprising, but there are severalreasons for this development.Foremost is DNA identification, which(30)has not only transformed forensicscience but also created a new set ofstandards that have raisedexpectations for forensic science.Even given these new expectations,(35)however, how can fingerprint analysis,so long the paradigm for humanidentification, be subject to seriousquestion? The answer lies inrecognizing the distinction between a(40)latent print (one taken from a crimescene), and a rolled or inked print (aprint taken under controlled conditions).

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Question:

Which best characterizes how both authors ultimately feel about the current use of fingerprints as a reliable means of identification?

A. Anxious
B. Skeptical
C. Indifferent
D. Conflicted
E. Outraged

Correct Answer: B

Option (B) is correct. In both passages, doubt is conveyed about the scientific reliability of fingerprints as a means of identification. The statement in the final sentence of Passage 1 conveys skepticism about the use of fingerprints. In Passage 2, the discussion of DNA identification and the distinction between latent and rolled prints also express doubts about the reliability of fingerprints.

Passage 1

In January 2002, Judge Louis Pollakmade headlines with a ruling on theadmissibility of fingerprints. TheLineopinion of the distinguished judge and(5)former academic was essentiallythat fingerprint identification was not alegitimate form of scientific evidence.Fingerprints not scientific? Theconclusions of fingerprint examiners(10)not admissible in court? Fingerprintshave been used as evidence in theU.S. courtroom for nearly 100 years. They have long been considered thegold standard of forensic science and(15)are widely viewed as an especiallypowerful and indisputable form ofevidence. What could Judge Pollakhave been thinking? About six weekslater, Judge Pollak changed his mind.(20)And yet, Judge Pollak’s first opinion was the better one.

Passage 2

Recently, the number of challenges tofingerprint evidence has beenincreasing. Given fingerprinting’s long(25)standing as the gold standard ofhuman identification, this may seemsurprising, but there are severalreasons for this development.Foremost is DNA identification, which(30)has not only transformed forensicscience but also created a new set ofstandards that have raisedexpectations for forensic science.Even given these new expectations,(35)however, how can fingerprint analysis,so long the paradigm for humanidentification, be subject to seriousquestion? The answer lies inrecognizing the distinction between a(40)latent print (one taken from a crimescene), and a rolled or inked print (aprint taken under controlled conditions).

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Question:

Both authors do which of the following?

A. Acknowledge historical precedents
B. Provide a definition of a term
C. Reference an authority figure
D. Offer an explanation for a recent trend
E. Present a personal experience

Correct Answer: A

Option (A) is correct. Historical precedent for the use of fingerprints is given in the fifth sentence of Passage 1 and the second sentence of Passage 2.

Passage 1

In January 2002, Judge Louis Pollakmade headlines with a ruling on theadmissibility of fingerprints. TheLineopinion of the distinguished judge and(5)former academic was essentiallythat fingerprint identification was not alegitimate form of scientific evidence.Fingerprints not scientific? Theconclusions of fingerprint examiners(10)not admissible in court? Fingerprintshave been used as evidence in theU.S. courtroom for nearly 100 years.They have long been considered the gold standard of forensic science and(15)are widely viewed as an especiallypowerful and indisputable form ofevidence. What could Judge Pollakhave been thinking? About six weekslater, Judge Pollak changed his mind.(20)And yet, Judge Pollak’s first opinion was the better one.

Passage 2

Recently, the number of challenges tofingerprint evidence has beenincreasing. Given fingerprinting’s long(25)standing as the gold standard ofhuman identification, this may seemsurprising, but there are severalreasons for this development.Foremost is DNA identification, which(30)has not only transformed forensicscience but also created a new set ofstandards that have raisedexpectations for forensic science.Even given these new expectations,(35)however, how can fingerprint analysis,so long the paradigm for humanidentification, be subject to seriousquestion? The answer lies inrecognizing the distinction between a(40)latent print (one taken from a crimescene), and a rolled or inked print (aprint taken under controlled conditions).

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Question:

Both passages are primarily concerned with

A. the best method of collecting fingerprints
B. understanding how forensic science works
C. advocating for more widespread use of fingerprints
D. the appropriateness of fingerprints for identification
E. challenging recent disclaimers about forensic science

Correct Answer: D

Option (D) is correct. Each passage addresses whether or not fingerprints are a reliable means of identification.

The Swedish town of Jukkasjarvi, 125 miles north of the Arctic Circle, has one unique phenomenon — a 60-room building, a hotel, made completely of ice. This piece of “meltable architecture” was not built in the time-honored Inuit manner of cutting blocks of snow packed hard by Arctic winds. To form the hotel, a plywood frame was piled high with snow and sprayed with water. After a settling-in period, the frame was removed, leaving an egglike structure.

Question:

The author mentions the Inuit way of building with ice primarily in order to

A. criticize the building techniques of the Swedish builders
B. provide a contrast with the building method used for the hotel
C. suggest the superiority of the traditional method
D. point out that different types of snow and ice require different building techniques
E. emphasize the historical perspective of the Swedish builders

Correct Answer: B

Option (B) is correct. The “time-honored Inuit manner” of constructing buildings in the Arctic environment differs from the method employed in building the hotel in the Swedish town of Jukkasjarvi.

In contemporary Western art, the signature is the individual artist’s claim to responsibility for his or her achievement. Such signatures are missing, however, in early Native American art, even where systems of writing were present. What could explain such an omission? On the one hand, there was no need for a signature, because artworks by individual artists were characterized and recognized by subtle differences from the works of other artists; on the other hand, argues scholar Alvin Josephy, individuality had little importance to the artists.

Question:

Alvin Josephy suggests that which of the following explains the absence of signatures on early Native American works of art?

A. Few early Native American artists learned systems of writing.
B. The artwork of early Native American artists emphasized traditional Native American themes.
C. Early Native Americans separated visual art forms from systems of writing.
D. Emphasis on individual recognition was not highly valued in early Native American art.
E. Artworks of early Native American artists could be identified by their subtle differences.

Correct Answer: D

Option (D) is correct. The passage presents two possible explanations for the absence of signatures. One is Josephy’s argument that “individuality had little importance to the artists.”

Even though no ancient writings survive from the thirteenth-century city of Cahokia — located in what is now Illinois — archaeologists hypothesize, given the artifacts found at Cahokian burial sites, that the residents of Cahokia engaged in trade. These artifacts include arrowheads made from the black chert of Oklahoma, worked shells from the Gulf of Mexico, and ornamental cutouts of mica from North Carolina.

Question:

Which of the following, if true, would suggest an alternative to the archaeologists’ hypothesis?

A. The residents of Cahokia used arrowheads for decorative as well as practical purposes.
B. The residents of Cahokia often received gifts from travelers.
C. The artifacts found at Cahokia date from the middle of the thirteenth century.
D. The artifacts found at Cahokia are elaborately ornamented.
E. The artifacts found at Cahokia are made from materials that cannot be found in the Cahokia area.

Correct Answer: B

Option (B) is correct. The passage suggests that trade is hypothesized to account for the presence of certain artifacts in Cahokia. Of the answer choices given, only the receiving of gifts would offer an alternate means of accounting for the presence of the artifacts.

Whenever people talk about TimesSquare, a commercial area in the heartof New York City, they talk about itsLinegiant signs. Those signs were there at(5)the square’s very start, and for itswhole life they have been designedand arranged to overwhelm the peopleon the ground. Over the years theyhave run 50, 60, 70 feet high,(10)sometimes a whole block long. Theyhave been extravagantly lit withwhatever the state of advertising artallows — thousands of bulbs, lovelyneon calligraphy, tremendous(15)spotlights, throbbing and explodingcomputer graphics. They are the moststriking elements in the New York cityscape.

In its profusion of signs, Times(20)Square has never been alone. Earlyin the twentieth century, every city hadits own version of Times Square. Mostof these went dark after the SecondWorld War, however, when many(25)American cities, especially in theAmerican Southwest, replaced theirdowntown squares with long, broadroads that favored drivers rather than pedestrians. In Las Vegas and Los(30)Angeles, these new commercialspaces were populated with signs asbig and bold as Times Square’s, butthey were laid out in straight lines,meant to be seen one or at most two at(35)a time by drivers or passengers on theroad. New York City alone survived to tell the tale.

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Question:

The primary purpose of the first paragraph of the passage is to

A. analyze a critical event in the history of American commercial art
B. identify an important period in New York City’s economic development
C. explain why New York City is such an innovative place
D. discuss an important element of one American cityscape
E. recount the author’s first experience of visiting Times Square

Correct Answer: D

Option (D) is correct. The first paragraph offers a historical commentary about a particular element, namely the big signs in Times Square, for which New York City is known.

Whenever people talk about TimesSquare, a commercial area in the heartof New York City, they talk about itsLinegiant signs. Those signs were there at(5)the square’s very start, and for itswhole life they have been designedand arranged to overwhelm the peopleon the ground. Over the years theyhave run 50, 60, 70 feet high,(10)sometimes a whole block long. Theyhave been extravagantly lit withwhatever the state of advertising artallows—thousands of bulbs, lovelyneon calligraphy, tremendous(15)spotlights, throbbing and explodingcomputer graphics. They are the moststriking elements in the New York cityscape.

In its profusion of signs, Times(20)Square has never been alone. Earlyin the twentieth century, every city hadits own version of Times Square. Mostof these went dark after the SecondWorld War, however, when many(25)American cities, especially in theAmerican Southwest, replaced theirdowntown squares with long, broadroads that favored drivers rather than pedestrians. In Las Vegas and Los(30)Angeles, these new commercialspaces were populated with signs asbig and bold as Times Square’s, butthey were laid out in straight lines,meant to be seen one or at most two at(35)a time by drivers or passengers on theroad. New York City alone survived to tell the tale.

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Question:

Which of the following best describes the relationship between the two paragraphs in the passage?

A. The first paragraph makes an assertion, while the second paragraph refutes that assertion with evidence.
B. The first paragraph describes a historical event, and the second paragraph presents various perspectives on that event.
C. The first paragraph describes a complex problem, and the second paragraph proposes a possible solution.
D. The second paragraph attempts to defend a theory introduced in the first paragraph.
E. The second paragraph places the phenomenon discussed in the first paragraph in a broader context.

Correct Answer: E

Option (E) is correct. The phenomenon discussed in the first paragraph is the “profusion of signs” in Times Square. The second paragraph asserts that the phenomenon of a profusion of large, lighted signs was not unique to New York City, and explains that their configuration in other cities changed after the Second World War.

Whenever people talk about TimesSquare, a commercial area in the heartof New York City, they talk about itsLinegiant signs. Those signs were there at(5)the square’s very start, and for itswhole life they have been designedand arranged to overwhelm the peopleon the ground. Over the years theyhave run 50, 60, 70 feet high,(10)sometimes a whole block long. Theyhave been extravagantly lit withwhatever the state of advertising artallows—thousands of bulbs, lovelyneon calligraphy, tremendous(15)spotlights, throbbing and explodingcomputer graphics. They are the moststriking elements in the New York cityscape.

In its profusion of signs, Times(20)Square has never been alone. Earlyin the twentieth century, every city hadits own version of Times Square. Mostof these went dark after the SecondWorld War, however, when many(25)American cities, especially in theAmerican Southwest, replaced theirdowntown squares with long, broadroads that favored drivers rather than pedestrians. In Las Vegas and Los(30)Angeles, these new commercialspaces were populated with signs asbig and bold as Times Square’s, butthey were laid out in straight lines,meant to be seen one or at most two at(35)a time by drivers or passengers on theroad. New York City alone survived to tell the tale.

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Question:

The author of the passage mentions “drivers” and “pedestrians” in line 28 most likely in order to

A. point out similarities between both of these groups
B. indicate the nature of a change in American urban development
C. advocate the adoption of a new approach to urban development
D. identify a basic difference between commercial areas and residential areas
E. suggest how roadside advertising has influenced consumers

Correct Answer: B

Option (B) is correct. The second sentence of the second paragraph indicates that a change in urban design resulted in drivers being favored over pedestrians. An implication of this change is that it led to the demise of the big signs in the heart of cities.

Whenever people talk about TimesSquare, a commercial area in the heartof New York City, they talk about itsLinegiant signs. Those signs were there at(5)the square’s very start, and for itswhole life they have been designedand arranged to overwhelm the peopleon the ground. Over the years theyhave run 50, 60, 70 feet high,(10)sometimes a whole block long. Theyhave been extravagantly lit withwhatever the state of advertising artallows—thousands of bulbs, lovelyneon calligraphy, tremendous(15)spotlights, throbbing and explodingcomputer graphics. They are the moststriking elements in the New York cityscape.

In its profusion of signs, Times(20)Square has never been alone. Earlyin the twentieth century, every city hadits own version of Times Square. Mostof these went dark after the SecondWorld War, however, when many(25)American cities, especially in theAmerican Southwest, replaced theirdowntown squares with long, broadroads that favored drivers rather than pedestrians. In Las Vegas and Los(30)Angeles, these new commercialspaces were populated with signs asbig and bold as Times Square’s, butthey were laid out in straight lines,meant to be seen one or at most two at(35)a time by drivers or passengers on theroad. New York City alone survived to tell the tale.

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Question:

The final sentence in the passage suggests that which of the following is true of Times Square?

A. It remains unappreciated by much of the United States.
B. It is the inspiration for much of the urban development in the United States after the Second World War.
C. It is unique in that it still has a single area with a concentration of large signs.
D. It needs some form of governmental protection if it is to survive.
E. It is no longer the commercial center that it once was.

Correct Answer: C

Option (C) is correct. The final sentence emphasizes the uniqueness of New York City with its concentration of big signs.

Whenever people talk about TimesSquare, a commercial area in the heartof New York City, they talk about itsLinegiant signs. Those signs were there at(5)the square’s very start, and for itswhole life they have been designedand arranged to overwhelm the peopleon the ground. Over the years theyhave run 50, 60, 70 feet high,(10)sometimes a whole block long. Theyhave been extravagantly lit withwhatever the state of advertising artallows—thousands of bulbs, lovelyneon calligraphy, tremendous(15)spotlights, throbbing and explodingcomputer graphics. They are the moststriking elements in the New York cityscape.

In its profusion of signs, Times(20)Square has never been alone. Earlyin the twentieth century, every city hadits own version of Times Square. Mostof these went dark after the SecondWorld War, however, when many(25)American cities, especially in theAmerican Southwest, replaced theirdowntown squares with long, broadroads that favored drivers rather than pedestrians. In Las Vegas and Los(30)Angeles, these new commercialspaces were populated with signs asbig and bold as Times Square’s, butthey were laid out in straight lines,meant to be seen one or at most two at(35)a time by drivers or passengers on theroad. New York City alone survived to tell the tale.

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Question:

The author would most likely agree with which of the following about the giant signs in Times Square?

A. While the technology behind the signs has changed, the basic purpose of those signs has remained constant.
B. The signs have been the driving force behind many of the changes in advertising art during the last century.
C. Only with the advent of computer graphics have the signs become truly striking to onlookers.
D. The use of the signs should be reconsidered given the amount of energy that they consume.
E. Because of their large size and extravagant lighting, the signs are unique in the American urban landscape.

Correct Answer: A

Option (A) is correct. Given the information about the “giant signs” in the second and third sentences of the first paragraph, it is reasonable to conclude that the author would most likely agree with (A).

Embarrassment is ubiquitous inhuman social life: it occurs all the time.But what triggers the experience ofLineembarrassment? Two competing(5)accounts have emerged in recentyears. According to the”social-evaluation” model, whichseems closest to ordinary intuition, theroot of embarrassment is the(10)anticipation of negative evaluation byothers. People become embarrassedwhen they perceive that the socialimage they want to project has beenundermined and that others are(15)forming negative impressions of them,as, for example, when stumbling in abusy restaurant. While there are manysituations that seem to fit this accountquite well, it does not provide a(20)complete story. Why, for example, domost people feel embarrassed whentheir friends sing “Happy Birthday” tothem in a restaurant? Here, others’attentions are entirely positive and do(25)not reflect negatively on the self in anyway. According to the”awkward-interaction” model,embarrassment is likely to arise whena person anticipates a disruption of(30)smooth social interaction and faces asituation without a clear sense of thesocial expectations governingbehavior. In other words, it is not thatpeople are worried about making a bad(35)impression per se that causesembarrassment, but rather that they do not know what to do next.

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Question:

It can be inferred from the passage that proponents of the social-evaluation model and proponents of the awkward-interaction model would probably disagree on which of the following issues?

A. Whether embarrassment is an automatic biological response
B. What kinds of concerns trigger feelings of embarrassment
C. What the outward signs of embarrassment are
D. What kind of person is most likely to become embarrassed
E. How important others’ opinions are to most people

Correct Answer: B

Option (B) is correct. Lines 4-6 provide evidence for answering this question correctly. The passage focuses on the question of what triggers embarrassment. Two models are offered to answer the question. The fact that the models are described as “competing accounts” with respect to the question indicates that they answer the question differently and, therefore, disagree on it.

Embarrassment is ubiquitous inhuman social life: it occurs all the time.But what triggers the experience ofLineembarrassment? Two competing(5)accounts have emerged in recentyears. According to the”social-evaluation” model, whichseems closest to ordinary intuition, theroot of embarrassment is the(10)anticipation of negative evaluation byothers. People become embarrassedwhen they perceive that the socialimage they want to project has beenundermined and that others are(15)forming negative impressions of them,as, for example, when stumbling in abusy restaurant. While there are manysituations that seem to fit this accountquite well, it does not provide a(20)complete story. Why, for example, domost people feel embarrassed whentheir friends sing “Happy Birthday” tothem in a restaurant? Here, others’attentions are entirely positive and do(25)not reflect negatively on the self in anyway. According to the”awkward-interaction” model,embarrassment is likely to arise whena person anticipates a disruption of(30)smooth social interaction and faces asituation without a clear sense of thesocial expectations governingbehavior. In other words, it is not thatpeople are worried about making a bad(35)impression per se that causesembarrassment, but rather that they do not know what to do next.

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Question:

The author finds fault with the social-evaluation model for its failure to answer which of the following questions?

A. Why do we become embarrassed when we think others have formed a bad impression of us?
B. Why does embarrassment most often tend to occur in public situations?
C. Why are certain people more prone to embarrassment than others?
D. What makes embarrassment an unpleasant sensation?
E. Why are we embarrassed by positive attention

Correct Answer: E

Option (E) is correct. The author objects to the social-evaluation model because it does not account for a person’s feelings of embarrassment in positive situations, as in the case of the “Happy Birthday” experience described in line 22.

Embarrassment is ubiquitous inhuman social life: it occurs all the time.But what triggers the experience ofLineembarrassment? Two competing(5)accounts have emerged in recentyears. According to the”social-evaluation” model, whichseems closest to ordinary intuition, theroot of embarrassment is the(10)anticipation of negative evaluation byothers. People become embarrassedwhen they perceive that the socialimage they want to project has beenundermined and that others are(15)forming negative impressions of them,as, for example, when stumbling in abusy restaurant. While there are manysituations that seem to fit this accountquite well, it does not provide a(20)complete story. Why, for example, domost people feel embarrassed whentheir friends sing “Happy Birthday” tothem in a restaurant? Here, others’attentions are entirely positive and do(25)not reflect negatively on the self in anyway. According to the”awkward-interaction” model,embarrassment is likely to arise whena person anticipates a disruption of(30)smooth social interaction and faces asituation without a clear sense of thesocial expectations governingbehavior. In other words, it is not thatpeople are worried about making a bad(35)impression per se that causesembarrassment, but rather that they do not know what to do next.

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Question:

For which of the following situations does the social-evaluation model, as it is described in the passage, provide the most likely explanation?

A. A woman pretends to be surprised when her family hosts a surprise party for her, even though she already knew that the party was going to take place.
B. A creative-writing class cheers when the professor announces the name of the best student author of the year.
C. An employee blushes uncontrollably when he forgets the name of a colleague he is attempting to introduce to his friends.
D. A young child begins to cry when his family starts singing “Happy Birthday” to the child’s older brother.
E. A high school senior bursts into tears of joy when informed that she has been awarded a scholarship to a major university.

Correct Answer: C

Option (C) is correct. Here, test takers are being asked to recognize a situation that is most similar to that of “stumbling in a restaurant.” According to the social-evaluation model, such a situation would result in others forming negative opinions of the person who stumbles or, in this case, “forgets the name of a colleague” to be introduced.

Embarrassment is ubiquitous inhuman social life: it occurs all the time.But what triggers the experience ofLineembarrassment? Two competing(5)accounts have emerged in recentyears. According to the”social-evaluation” model, whichseems closest to ordinary intuition, theroot of embarrassment is the(10)anticipation of negative evaluation byothers. People become embarrassedwhen they perceive that the socialimage they want to project has beenundermined and that others are(15)forming negative impressions of them,as, for example, when stumbling in abusy restaurant. While there are manysituations that seem to fit this accountquite well, it does not provide a(20)complete story. Why, for example, domost people feel embarrassed whentheir friends sing “Happy Birthday” tothem in a restaurant? Here, others’attentions are entirely positive and do(25)not reflect negatively on the self in anyway. According to the”awkward-interaction” model, embarrassment is likely to arise whena person anticipates a disruption of(30)smooth social interaction and faces asituation without a clear sense of thesocial expectations governingbehavior. In other words, it is not thatpeople are worried about making a bad(35)impression per se that causesembarrassment, but rather that they do not know what to do next.

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Question:

According to the awkward-interaction model, the reason that most people are embarrassed when their friends sing “Happy Birthday” to them in a restaurant is that they

A. are afraid that it will disturb other restaurant patrons
B. are usually completely surprised by the celebration
C. often do not want others to know how old they are
D. do not know how to respond to being sung to
E. think it is silly to make a fuss over an adult’s birthday

Correct Answer: D

Option (D) is correct. Line 22 makes clear that a person not knowing how to respond to having “Happy Birthday” sung to him/her in a public arena is the source for embarrassment, according to the awkward-interaction model. This point is elaborated in line 28.

Art, or at least art that matters, traffics in a space between the world as it might be and the world as it is. Whether we feel better or worse about ourselves in its midst depends on the kinds of artists involved, but either way, the best artists make us want to linger in the spaces they concoct if only because afterward the real world comes more clearly into focus.

Question:

Which of the following could be substituted for the phrase “traffics in” in the first sentence with the least change in meaning?

A. clogs up
B. exists in
C. passes by
D. overtakes
E. consumes

Correct Answer: B

Option (B) is correct. Test takers are being asked to select a substitute phrase that will maintain the meaning of the sentence containing “traffics in.” Here, “traffics in” suggests to reside in, live in. The choice that most clearly conveys that same meaning is (B).

Michael Novacek, curator of paleontology at the American Museum of Natural History, is a world-class field scientist. He is also one of paleontology’s most effective popularizers, an entertaining writer as good at bringing oviraptors and other fantastic creatures to life in print as at spotting their fragmented remains in a wall of rock. He writes without the sensationalism that has dogged the study of dinosaurs since the nineteenth century, when rival museums competed to claim the biggest skeletons.

Question:

Which of the following best describes Michael Novacek’s work in paleontology?

A. His primary concern is to criticize the work of paleontologists who have sensationalized the field.
B. He excels at fieldwork as well as at popular writing about serious scientific issues.
C. He does good fieldwork, but his pompous style weakens his writing about scientific themes.
D. He aims to be an entertaining writer, and as a result he sensationalizes his subject.
E. His writing, both popular and academic, overshadows his fieldwork.

Correct Answer: B

Option (B) is correct. The second sentence of the paragraph directly addresses Novacek’s work in paleontology.

Marginalia, notes written in the margins of a book, seem unworthy of attention almost by definition — they are slight, dispensable, often anonymous, and too often distracting. Of course, if they happen to be made by one literary celebrity in a book written by another — for example, the English poet John Keats on the ancient Greek historian Herodotus — some attention is deserved. Otherwise, such annotation is now taken as a kind of trespass, an inappropriate marring of a book’s virgin terrain.

Question:

The function of the second sentence in the passage (Of course, if they . . . ) is to

A. elaborate on the explanation given in the first sentence
B. pose a rhetorical question
C. provide an exception to a rule
D. make an allusion to a relevant poem
E. compare the same phenomenon in two historical periods

Correct Answer: C

Option (C) is correct. The opening sentence claims that marginalia, by definition, seem almost unworthy of attention; however, an exception is noted, as in the case cited in the second sentence.