Geneticallymodified organisms can be produced by gene cloning methods in which a nativegene is introduced and expresses in new organisms. The modified GM technologyhas been developing for a while. The pros of GM crops are many and diverse. Someof the advantage of this GM crops are herbicide tolerance and pest managements,human health, and environmental benefits.
First,herbicide tolerance and pest management is one of the advantage of GMO cropfarming. The most widely adopted HT crops are glyphosate tolerant (Dill,CaJabob, & Padgette), colloquially known as “Roundup Ready” crops.Herbicide tolerant GM crops have provided farmers with operational benefits.The main benefits associated with HT canola, for example, were easier andbetter weed control.
The development of GM HT canolavarieties has also been linked to incremental gains in weed control and canolayield. The reduction of pesticide applications is a major direct benefit of GMcrop cultivation: reducing farmers’ exposure to chemicals andlowering pesticide residues in food and feed crops, while also releasing lesschemicals into the environment and potentially increasing on-farm diversity ininsects and pollinators Additionally, according to the article improved pestmanagement can reduce the level of mycotoxins in food and feed crops (Wu, 2006). Insect resistance in GM crops has alsoconferred by transferring the gene for toxin creation from the bacterium Bacillusthuringiensis (Bt) into crops like maize.
This toxin is naturally occurringin Bt and is presently used as a traditional insecticide in agriculture,including certified organic agriculture, and is considered safe to use on foodand feed crops (Roh, Choi, Li, Jin, & Je, 2007). GM crops that produce this toxin have beenshown to require little or no additional pesticide application even when pestpressure is high. Secondly, GM crops have a positiveinfluence on human health by reducing exposure to insecticides.
Most of thepublic concern has been focused on human health and safety regarding the useand consumption of the GMO foods. However, most of the studies are based on assumptionsrather than experiments but most of the crops that are commercialized passregulatory approval from the food and drug administrations. According to the articlemalnutrition is very common in developing countries. Also, rice does notcontain sufficient quantities of all the important nutrients to prevent malnutrition.However, GM crops supply more nutrition by a single food sources like rice. Finally,there are also some environmental benefits. Reductions in pesticide use canlead to a greater conservation of beneficial insects and help to protect anothernon-target species. It has been claimed that growing Bt maize could help tosignificantly reduce the use of chemical pesticides and lower the cost ofproduction to some extent.
Some proponents of GM crops have argued that becausethey increase productivity they facilitate more sustainable farming practicesand can lead to “greener” agriculture. for instance, according to thearticle, GM crops require less energy investment in farming because the reducedapplication of insecticide lowers energy input levels, thereby reducing thecarbon footprint. It has been suggested by other authors that the adoption ofGM crops may also have the potential to reduce inputs such as chemicalfertilizers and pesticides. Others note that higher crop yields facilitated byGM crops could offset greenhouse gas emissions at scales like those attributedto wind and solar energy.
Greenhouse gas emissions from intensive agricultureare also offset by the conservation of non-farmed lands. Inconclusion, as mentioned above the adoption of GM herbicide tolerance crops hasaccelerated the evolution of herbicide resistant weeds, which has createdadditional operational challenges and costs for farmers. The GM cropscommercialized to date have all been deregulated and deemed to be safe to theenvironment and safe in terms of human health by competent authorities aroundthe world, including the Food Safety Association. However, in my opinion weneed more experiments to decrease allergens reactions.
We also need to focus onthe disadvantage of the GM crops.