Gilded Age

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Last updated: August 5, 2019

United States History “The Gilded Age” Unit Portrait of America: Heilbroner, “The Master of Steel: Andrew Carnegie” McCullough, “The Brooklyn Bridge: A Monument to American Ingenuity and Daring” “Gilded Age” – Key Terms Transcontinental Railroads Union Pacific & Central Pacific Land Grants Power – natural monopolies: Vanderbilt Industrial stimulation Corruption: stock watering, rebates, pools Regulation – Wabash case? 0 Interstate Commerce Act (1887) Captains of Industry (Robber Barons) Carnegie – steel (Bessemer process) – integration” Rockefeller – oil – “horizontal integration”Morgan – banking – “interlocking directorates” – buys out Carnegie for $400 mil. , US Steel “The American Beauty Rose can only be grown by sacrificing the early buds that grow up around it” Standard Oil – by 1877 controlled 95% of oil refineries Gospel of Wealth – Justification? Natural selection – Social Darwinism Regulation – Sherman Anti-Trust Law (1890) – forbade combinations in restraint of trade South lags behind – kept there by systems like “Pittsburgh Plus” Unions Workers hurt by “ironclad” and “yellow-dog” contracts, company towns National Labor Union (1886) Knights of Labor (1877) – for economic and social reformHaymarket Square, 1886 American Federation of Labor (1886) – only skilled workers – led by Samuel Gompers – for better wages, hours, and conditions – used walkout and boycott Life in the Cities 10 million immigrants between 1860-1890 New Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe – faced challenges to assimilate and yet preserve culture and tradition “American fever” – land of opportunity, “streets paved in gold”? Patronage – trading Jobs and services for votes for a political “boss” Settlement House (e. g. Hull House by Jane Adams) to help immigrants Nativism Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Question of leadership for blacks Booker T.

Washington vs. W. E.

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B. DuBois The Great West and Farming Problems for Indians: Broken treaties, railroad, diseases, alcohol, killing of the buffalo (from 1 5 mil to less than 1,000 by 1885) Dawes Severalty Act (1887) – forced assimilation Carlisle Indian School Mining in the West – gold and silver attract settlers (Pikes Peak, Comstock Lode) The Long Drive – Texas cowboys driving cattle to “cow towns” to put cattle on railcars Homestead Act – 160 acres – promises and realities Dry farming – needed to confront the challenging climate Wheat flourished in the West 890 census declares the frontier “closed” – significance? Turner’s Thesis) Cash Crops – due to technological advancements, e. g. the combine Vulnerability – unprotected, competitive world markets vs. TARIFF protected manufactured goods 1870s lack of currency forced crop price down – hard on DEBTORS (farmers have mortgages) Droughts – starting in summer of 1887 Farmer response: Political – Grange (1867), Greenback Labor Party, Farmers’ Alliance Populists (The People’s Party) – platform issues..

. pantc of 1893 Coxey’s Army (1894)- unemployment relief through public works program Pullman Strike (1894) – led by Debs Election of 1896…

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