31 Oct 2012
Global warming refers to the average increase in the level of temperature of the atmosphere close to the surface of the earth and the troposphere and can lead to changes in the universal climate patterns. In common terms, global warning can be the result of increase in green house gas emissions from human activities. Global warming can take place from a myriad of causes that both human beings and natural factors induce. Over the century, issues of global warming have taken center stage among discussions in the media, science, politics and states. The effects of global warming are also experienced worldwide and governments, leaders and scientists are seeking ways to counter these outcomes. Some efforts have been undertaken such as the Kyoto Protocol that regulates the emission of gases.
Perspectives on global warming
Global warming has been on the rise since the 1950s. Estimates show the projection for the rise in global warming is set to escalate by six to ten degrees Fahrenheit by the time the century ends. There is an international consensus within the scientific community that global warming is a reality. People were generally unaware and concerned about global warming but lately individuals have been taking bold steps to understand the concept. The media is also highlighting the issue now more than ever. Environmental groups and scientists are also involved in the process of public awareness. With the acquired knowledge, creation of new perceptions among the public and scientists takes place.
Scientist view global warming as the result of manmade activities. Their argument sets basis on the history that before the industrial revolution, the climate on earth would change because of natural factors unrelated to human activity. With the advent of industrialization and pollution, global warming changed to a man made issue. These activities emit greenhouse gases that lead to global warming. Variations in the global climate have been the result of variations in sunlight. When sunlight hits the earth, tinny wobbles within the orbit of the earth alter. Variations in the intensity of the sun simultaneously increase and decrease the total amount of energy that reaches the earth.
It is widely stated that the harmful human activities surpass natural causes of global warming. The argument is that the natural causes occur slowly and are minimal. They therefore have limited significance of global warming (Miller, 75). Human activities undergo monitoring to asses their effects on climate change. Use of surface instruments and satellites are the main tools of the scientific observation. NASA satellites record the vital signs like atmospheric gases inclusive of greenhouse gases, energy from the earth, sun, aerosols (material from natural sources and manmade activities like fires, erupting volcanoes and factories), ice sheets and many more.
Integration of surface instruments and satellite conclude research and the final measurements. Once compiled, the measurements make climate models that recreate recorded temperatures for the past 150 years. The method has proven effective to show the rate of climatic change. Scientists have also theorized that there is the possibility of a multi-decadal trend in the level of solar output. It is still a theory that is not in practice in the planet. Scientists continue to emphasize the threats the human pollution, deforestation and emission of green house gases is continuously increasing global warming. The processes alter the balance of the atmosphere contributing to climate change.
Another perspective of global warming argues that scientists have exaggerated the issue of climate change. This school believes that global warming is political project and a swindle by scientists to acquire finance for research and advance their interests. The process is political because politicians are looking for a dominant issue that they may use to their advantage to instill anxiety among the populace in order to attain or retain power. The scientists on the other hand work with these politicians to get finance for research and scientific projects. The field of science in relation to global warming is currently among the major aspects that is receiving finance for research.
This differing school disqualifies the assertion that human beings and activities are responsible for climate change. Accordingly, global warming would have occurred whether human beings did not undertake their regular and modernized activities. The argument is that natural elements cause global warming. Volcanic activity is among the natural causes of global warming. Volcanic eruptions contain particles that are products used to reflect sunlight consequently making the planet brighter and cooling the climate. Volcanic activity increased greenhouse gases for millions of years leading to episodes of global warming. Other causes include methane emissions from animals and changes in earth cycles.
Globalization and global warming
Globalization is the process that is transforming the world into a small community despite state boundaries and distance. Climate change is a global matter. The whole planet will undergo the climatic changes (Bily, 56). Globalization has had adverse effects on climate change. Global warming is a subject that encompasses many social, ecological, ethical and political components. These aspects tend to differ globally. Different states have different systems, cultures, environments, policies and climates. Sections of the world are already reeling from the effects of global warming with, increase in floods and droughts, extreme temperatures and rise in sea levels.
Globalization has increased interactions among states. Multinationals are moving operations from their nationalities to the developing countries where there is market and cheaper labor. Developed states have set strict regulations on environment and the role of industry. However, developing countries are yet to set strict policies on environmental control. The transnational organizations are taking advantage of these situations and escaping their county’s strict laws. Consequently, southern rainforests deplete in efforts to provide of exotic timber for consumers in the developed states (Philander, 124). Forests undergo destruction to offer pastureland for beef and northern hamburgers.
Interactions between developed and developing states have also increased because of globalization. States industrialize in the non-industrialized world because of the influence of industrialized states. Interstate agreements on development and industrialization are also common. Developing states are under pressure to be at the same level with the developed states and adopting industrial activities that are destroying the environment. Western countries are the bearers of major responsibility for global warming. Industrialized countries account for close to 90% of the planet’s annual greenhouse gas emission.
Globalization has also had positive effects with the increased interactions among states seeking to find long-term solutions to the pertinent issue. Countries are now willing to cooperate and conduct negotiations. Treaties alter the effects of climate change in conferences regularly. Bodies such as the United Nations are bringing the global community of states, leaders, individuals, environmental groups and bodies to find suitable solutions. Some of the conferences include the World Climate Change Conference and the Copenhagen conference on climate change. Governments are also passing unified laws on the protection of the environment such as the Kyoto Protocol
Global warming and the economy
Economists and scientists are starting to grapple with the serious environmental and economic consequences of global warming. Failure to reduce the effects is going to cause a downturn in the economy. The environment provides human beings with sources and means to acquire wealth. Activities such as farming, mining, fishing and industry all involve the environment. Sadly, the continued depletion of the environment and its resources will kill the major sources of income for most countries. Poor environmental policies and management is slowly sinking governments into economic crisis (Robinson, 73).
Countries have the threats of coping with the cost of the outcomes of change in climate. Disruptions caused by floods, drought, rising sea levels and climatic calamities are slowly crippling economies. For instance in the horn of Africa the effects of famine and drought has increased poverty levels in the region. Countries are slowly backtracking on their development agenda. Global warming is increasing the number of people leaving the motherlands for areas with better climatic conditions. These people are “climate refugees.” Mass movements cause social disruptions, civil unrests, insecurity leading to poor investments and little revenue for governments.
Global Warming and the Theory of Inversion of the Magnetic Field of the Earth.
Some amounts of heat on the surface of the earth are the product of energy contained in the earth. Internal energy within the earth results in the magnetic field that takes place on the surface of the earth. Heat inside the earth causes the ionization in the earth and separates electrons away from donor atoms. When separations becomes significant enough together with the number of ionized atoms a magnetic field will be formed from within, above and on the surface of the earth. The field is a dipole field. The earth’s magnetic field has been on the decrease as the end of the warming cycle is approaching.
The changes in the magnetic field are the controlling influence the mantle has on the core. Research showed that up to around 80 to 200 million years ago, the magnetic field had initially begun to reverse its polarity frequently. Polarity was at the rate of reversing close to ten times after every million years. After 50 million years, the reversals changed for up to 40 million years. These changes at the period cause the mantle, crust and all continents to undergo a big rotation in relation to the time averaged geomagnetic poles and geographic features. The process led to change in density distribution within the mantle and changed heat patterns from the core (Jacobs, 58). Pattern changes caused the magnetic field to become unstable, leading to reversals to be more stable.
The earth controls the magnetic field. For the magnetic field to form from charges, motions relatively have to be existent between the charges and the observer. When the charges and the observer are at a similar distance form the planet, motion is less or none despite the two elements rotating at high speeds. Decrease in magnetic field lead to movement of electrons toward the surface. Decrease in magnetic field coupled with increase in internal heat cause reversals on the magnetic field of the earth. It predicted that the earth is entering a cooling cycle after the global warming.
Global warming remains a contentious issue worldwide. The differing perspectives that separate fact from fiction are also emerging issues in geography. Awareness among people has also increased because of continued efforts to involve the public in the environmental crisis. People lose property and become poor. Some governments have had a difficult time adjusting and reconstructing themselves after the implications of climate change. The issue is no longer a national one but an international subject. Globalization contributes to global warming but it is offering hope in the process of managing climate change. Technological and scientific solutions are also assisting in fighting environmental degradation.
Bily, Cynthia. Global Warming. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Print.
Jacobs, John. Reversals of the Earth’s Magnetic Field. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.
Miller, Debra A. Global Warming. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Print.
Philander, George. Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2008. Print.
Robinson, Colin. Global Warming and the Market Economy. London: Institute of Economic Affairs, 2007. Print.