Greece

Topic: ArtConcerts
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Last updated: May 4, 2019
Mycenae
Loose alliance of independent monarchies whereRoyalty lived within fortified, walled palaces.

Focused on commercial and military expansion, defeated Troy.

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Greek Dark Ages
Period in Greek history from 1150-750 BC. New intruders came to the land, neglected older palaces, population & food declined.

Most of what we know about this period comes from Homer’s Odyssey and Iliad.

Homer
A Greek poet, author of the epic poems Iliad and the Odyssey

Trojan War
Greeks vs. Troy. Trojan Prince kidnapped Helen, wife of the Greek king. Greeks won when they tricked the Trojans with the Trojan Horse. The Iliad gives information about the Trojan War.

polis
A Greek city-state.

Designed to promote civic and commercial life.

acropolis
A fortified area located at the top of a hill that served as a place to escape in case of attack and sometimes as a religious center.

agora
An open market area below the acropolis.

Why did Greeks “spread” and colonize?
Between 750 b.

c. and 550 b.c., overpopulation and a desire for good farmland drove many Greeks to leave for other lands. They established colonies throughout the Mediterranean region, along the shores of the Black Sea, building cities, such as Byzantium, in key port locations.

In establishing new colonies, the Greeks spread their culture and political ideas throughout the region.

How did Greek colonization impact the civilization?
Colonization led to the development of a successful trade network and the expansion of local industries. This created a new group of wealthy citizens seeking political power.

What were tyrants and how did they impact modern-day government?
Tyrants seize power In the 7th and 6th centuries b.c.,from the ruling aristocrats in many city-states.

Tyrants were supported by the newly rich, who wanted more political influence, and by the poor, who were in debt to landholding aristocrats. They held power by using hired soldiers.Tyrants tried to win the favor of the people by helping the poor and launching massive public works projects.The tyrants eventually fell from power, pushed out by the Greek belief in the rule of law. This allowed many new people to participate in government…leading to the development of democracy.

Sparta
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused heavily on military rule, used slaves (helots) for agriculture, discouraged the arts and isolated themselves from outside influences.

Athens
A democratic Greek polis who accomplished many cultural achievements, and who were constantly at war with Sparta.

Pericles
A prominent and influential statesman of ancient Athens (ca. 495-429 B.C.E.), he presided over Athens’s Golden Age.

What was the role of women in Athenian society?
Women could take part in religious festivals and attend funerals, but otherwise they were expected to remain at home, out of sight. The chief obligation of women was to bear children and to take care of the family and the home. Women were strictly controlled—always having male guardians—and were given no formal education.

How did Greece’s geography affect it’s development?
Because Greece was so mountainous and had rocky, infertile land, it developed as a sea-faring country.

This also forced it to expand it’s trade farther away and therefore spread its ideas and traditions with areas it conquered.

Why would the differing values of Sparta and Athens have led to conflict?
Spartans valued duty, strength, and discipline. Athenians valued freedom, intellectual pursuits, and family life.

Each was devoted to its own way of life and was unable to tolerate the other’s system.

How was Greek religion an essential part of Greek society?
Gods and goddesses: Homer described the gods and goddesses that the Greeks worshiped. The twelve chief gods and goddesses were thought to live on Mount Olympus.

Honoring the gods: The ancient Greeks honored the gods and goddesses by building temples for them and dedicating festivals and other events to them.Learning the will of the gods: The Greeks sought to learn the will of the gods by consulting oracles (prophets).

What groundbreaking art and literature were produced during the classical period in Greece?
Architecture: The most important form of architecture was the temple, which housed statues of gods or goddesses and contained a treasury of gifts to the deity.The Parthenon: The Parthenon, on the acropolis of Athens, is regarded as the greatest example of the classical Greek temple.Sculpture: Greek sculptors focused on the human body, seeking to achieve a standard of ideal beauty.The ideal human form: The sculptor Polyclitus believed that the use of ideal proportions, based on mathematical ratios found in nature, could produce an ideal human form (not neccessarily realistic).

What were the philosophical ideas that came out of ancient Greece?
“Love of Wisdom”: Early Greek philosophers focused on the development of critical or rational thought about the nature of the universe.Sophists: Sophists argued that individual self-improvement was more important than speculating about the universe. They emphasized the importance of rhetoric.

Socrates: Socrates believed that critical examination, through a question-and-answer process, could call forth the knowledge already present within each person. Socrates questioned authority and was put to death by the Athenian government.Plato: Plato explored the nature of reality.

He also attempted to describe the ideal state, or society, in which individuals could achieve a good life.Aristotle: Aristotle emphasized analyzing and classifying things via observation and investigation. He defined entire categories of study and wrote about a wide range of subjects.

Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world. Began the Hellenistic era, a blend of all the areas he had conquered.

What was the significance of Hellenistic cities as a result of Alexander the Great’s conquests?
The four Hellenistic kingdoms became the successors to Alexander the Great’s empire and cultural centers.

Alexandria in Egypt was the largest city in the Mediterranean and home to poets, writers, philosophers, and scientists, along with a massive library and a museum in which scholars did research.Art: Architecture reflected the Greek homeland; Sculptors, paid by kings and wealthy citizens, moved away from the idealism of the classical period to a more realistic style.Literature: Writing talent was held in high esteem, and Hellenistic leaders spent great amounts of money paying writers. A new style of comedy entertained rather than criticized citizens.

What were the scientific achievements of the Hellenistic era?
Astronomy: Aristarchus developed the theory that the sun is at the center of the universe. Eratosthenes determined that Earth is round and calculated its circumference.

Mathematics: Euclid wrote a textbook on geometry that has been used up to modern times. Archimedes, the most famous scientist of the time, studied the geometry of spheres and cylinders and established the value of the mathematical constant pi (?).Epicureanism: Epicurus taught that human beings should pursue their own self-interest and make happiness their goal, freeing themselves from public activity.Stoicism: Stoicism, founded by Zeno, thought that happiness could be found only by living in harmony with the will of God.

Stoics encouraged public service.

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