Type: Evaluation Essays
Sample donated: Arnold Carson
Last updated: October 22, 2019
HEALTH PROMOTION Name: Course No and Name: Date: 1.
AIM To provide a strategic proposal for health promotion addressing teenage obesity. 2. OBJECTIVES a.) Achieve a meeting between teenagers suffering from obesity and a health professional on the first week to enlighten them on obesity, its health risks and realistic ways of dealing with it by setting up clinics in relevant locations. This objective is important because of its ability to provide the health professional with vital information e.g.
the reasons why the patient put on weight. These reasons can aid the better understanding of obesity. In addition, through discussions, the patient understands how the condition can be modified and agreement can be reached on setting achievable goals. This objective can be considered a SMART objective since it is specific, timely and achievable. b.
) Develop a specific, timely and achievable 12-20week weight loss program for the obese teenagers by modifying both their eating and exercising habits. This objective is relevant because weight loss is the key factor in combating obesity. To lose weight, an obese patient should eat less food while at the same time increase the energy the body uses by exercising.
These two forms of treatment are indispensable and dependent on each other for visible results. This objective is considered a SMART objective since it is measurable. The goal of loosing weight is specifically stated and with the availability of the necessary resources, it can be considered obtainable. c.
) Maintain the healthy weight of the subject for a long-term period by practicing an active and a healthy lifestyle. This objective is of importance since in most cases, patients often gradually gain back half of the lost weight in a period of 6months. Hence, both the subject and health professional should be aware of the tendency to put on weight and strive to prevent it from occurring. This objective is a SMART objective because it is timely and relevant to the aim of the health promotion. 3. HEALTH PROMOTION ACTIVITIES The health promotional activities should be active and engaging on both parties. Furthermore, they should be consistent with both the aim and the objectives of the health promotion.
Here is an outline of these health promotional activities. a) Hold meetings between the obese patients and the health professional. This activity involves detailed discussions between the patient and the health professional.
The details of the discussion entail the relationship between obesity and degenerative diseases and information on how this condition can be reversed to a healthy one. At the individual level, the stages of change model can be applicable. This model requires the willingness and readiness of the individual to adopt healthy habits that can help to eradicate obesity. This model evokes the determination of the patient by giving him a choice. The patient is expected to contemplate on the benefits of being healthy and then make a wise decision. In addition, the Ottawa charter addresses this aspect of health promotion by suggesting that health promotion is an enabling process that is practiced by the patient willingly and not a process that is imposed. The health belief model can also be useful since the obese patient’s perception of the health risks that he/she faces, determine whether the patient will adopt the recommended behavior.
b) Adopt new ways of eating. This activity is relevant in the process of accomplishing the second objective. This is because for an obese patient to lose weight, he/she should begin with the diet. Eating the right foods and in the right portions is an effective way of losing weight since to lose weight, the calorie intake should be less than calorie expenditure.
This activity is in accordance with the Ottawa charter, which suggests that health promotion is aimed towards improving the control of the patient over health determinants. In this case, the health determinant happens to be unhealthy foods that are high in fats. In addition, the social learning theory can be effective if the patient is keen to adopt this activity as a lifestyle rather than as a temporary fix. This theory suggests that personal factors, environmental-influences and the behavior of the patient continually interact during health promotion to ensure desired results. This activity involves, having a regular meal plan, eating low calorie foods and adopting simple food tables to help govern the new lifestyle. c) Adopt exercising habits. During a one-hour walk, an individual burns 300kcal of energy as compared to the 60kcal burned while sitting. From this simple fact alone, it is noticeable that exercising has immediate benefits in obese patients.
This activity also utilizes the stages of change model. Through this model, the obese patient is required to attempt to change towards healthy behavior, which in our case happens to involve regular exercising. The Ottawa model is also applicable by considering regular exercise as a vital health determinant with reference to obesity.
This activity involves use of more energy by obese people through cardiovascular exercises and weight lifting. d) Create a supportive environment. The community organizational theory of health promotion is based on the idea that there has to be a high level of participation and development of communities for better evaluation of the health problem. In our case, the health problem is obesity. The level of participation required features mainly through motivational support from family members and friends. For the obese patient to be able to go through the exercising routine and stick to the healthy diet there has to be an element of support involved. The parents of the teenage patient should be present all through the process and they should develop a keen interest in the progress of the patient.
The community should also be well developed to aid in the weight loss process. Development can be measured in terms of the availability of required recourses like training facilities, medical supplies and healthy food. This activity is present in the Ottawa charter as one of its mechanisms. e) Maintain the healthy weight. After the weight-loss programme, which involves the synchronous application of a healthy diet and regular exercise, the patient will have lost enough weight. Now the task will be maintaining the weight.
If the patient is susceptible to temptations of going back to old habits that define an unhealthy lifestyle, it is possible that he/she will end up obese again. The correct approach involves the stages of change model. This model will require the patient to be willing to understand that necessary steps need to be taken to maintain a healthy state. These steps involve presence of awareness that there exists a possibility of regaining lost weight. This activity can be accomplished by maintaining the healthy diet and living an active and healthy lifestyle. f) Reorganize health services. According to the Ottawa charter, strengthening people’s health potential through good health is a means to a productive life.
Health services are a major factor when it comes to health promotion since good health services ensure a prevention of health issues. In this activity, the act of preventing obesity is considered a priority as compared to the act of curing it. The organizational change theory can be adopted.
This theory advocates for strategies that can help change health policies and programmes in health services to enable better management of obesity in the community. 4. RESOURSES In order for health promotion activities within a given location to be successful, there are different strategies that can be handy in helping individuals change their behavior. Evidence has it that using a tailored and targeted group in terms of culture, gender, age, and many others help in getting the desired result (Marshall, McConkey & Moore, 2003: 148). For instance, when talking about drug and substance abuse, it is only natural that the most vulnerable would be targeted.
In addition, when conducting health promotion, it would be necessary to have in place alternatives toward reduction of risk. For instance, when providing health education on poor eating habits, it would be imperative to provide alternatives that would help in reducing exposure to obesity (Marshall, McConkey & Moore, 2003: 149). It would also be necessary to address the social pressures and norms as they play significant roles in the behavior patterns taken by the young and old alike. These skills are also highlighted in the Ottawa charter.
They help the targeted groups understand how peer pressure is related to unhealthy behaviors (World Health Organization, 1986). 5. EVALUATION After having implemented the programs, we would evaluate how the activities and strategies have worked and where we make the necessary changes later. At the formative level, we have seen that the programs are very important for health promotion and that individuals need to adopt new behaviors with regard to improving their health (Sabin, 2007: 365). By targeting specific groups, for instance, in this case, the target group is teenagers who play video games instead of working on exercising to improve his health. It would be an added advantage because getting different age groups together would not augur well with the spirit of health promotion (Sabin, 2007: 365). For instance, the young people have different needs and expectations similar to the older generations.
Going to schools and colleges to meet the targeted groups will play to the advantage of successful health promotion. Process evaluation is a bit tricky but manageable. This is because, not all teenagers will want attending the health promotion sessions because they feel it is wasting time and they would rather play video games than attend some obsolete sessions (Sabin, 2007: 365). So far, the reception is good because the community support the initiatives related to improvement of healthy nutritional practices. They also admit that most teenagers prefer playing video games to nothing else, a good number of teenagers spend much of their time exposing themselves to dangers of obesity by poor physical exercises. Summative evaluation confirms that the activities will have positive impacts on the members of the community despite having met several challenges (Sabin, 2007: 365).
For instance, in terms of costs, the programs have been managable and the intended budget fits in as desired. In terms of outcomes, the programs definitely realized the objectives which included health promotion is helping individuals or groups to arrive at a state where they have complete social, physical, and mental well-being (Sabin, 2007: 365). The other objective that has been realized by the programs includes changing perceptions and beliefs through interventions geared toward increasing the ability for the members of the society to seek the necessary tests for betterment of health (Sabin, 2007: 365). 7. ACTION PLAN Task/Time Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Educational meeting between teenage patients and health professionals Adoption of healthy eating and exercising habits Constant evaluation of the progress made and revision of set goals Bibliography Aicken C, Arai L, Roberts H., 2008. Schemes to promote healthy weight among obese and overweight children in England.
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