Herbicides exposed to low concentrations of toxicants (Lee

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Last updated: July 12, 2019

Herbicides are important chemicals used in agriculture that can be introducedinto the aquatic environment due to runoff and leaching, cussing adverseeffects on non-target organisms, particularly fish fauna(Wany et al., 1992).Oxadiazon (Ronstar) is a widely usedherbicide commonly used in rice fields against both mono and dicotyledonousweeds, as well as in fruit trees, vines, grasses, cotton, soybeans, onions, andsunflowers (Ahmed et al.

, 2008).Different oxadiazon residue concentrations ranged 0.4 to 7.24 ?g/ Lin different water bodies such as river/stream waters (Mamun et al., 2009; Kimet al., 2014), as well as up to 0.

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442 ppm in different tissues of fish andshellfish have also been reported (Imanaka et al., 1981).Exposure to oxadiazon have been revealeda retardinggrowth in African Catfish (Clariasgariepinus; Ajani et al., 2015), and adverse effects on serum biochemical profile in common carp (C. carpio; Saravanan et al.

, 2017) and PlatyFish (Xiphophorus maculatus; Sadeghi and Imanpoor, 2015), as wellas induced peroxisome proliferation in the rodents (Richert et al., 1996).The exposure ofaquatic organisms such as different fish species even to lowenvironmentally-relevant concentrations of pesticides can result in severeeffects on genetic and physiological parameters that can be considered as biomarkers for evaluation of fishhealth as well as monitoring of environment pollutants (Wendelaar-Bonga, 1997; Blahova et al., 2014; Ahmadivand et al.,2016; Mitkovska et al., 2017).Comet assay is a sensitive technique for the detection of DNAdamage, practically applied in all nuclear eukaryotic cells and biological species, especiallyfor biomonitoring and confirming DNA damage in aquatic organisms (Jin et al.,2004; Kim and Hyum, 2006; Klobucar et al.

, 2010; Mitkovska et al., 2017). The method allowing to detect a wide variety of DNA damage,including DNA single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites and reparation, as well as oxidatively induced base damages, even when exposed to low concentrations of toxicants (Leeand Steinert, 2003; Frenzilli et al., 2009).

The common carp (C. carpio) is one of the most important andvaluable commercial fish species in Iran that mainly farmed in the Caspianlittoral provinces (Gilan, Mazandran and Golestan), the area of highagricultural use and depends largely on surface water supplies (Salehi, 1999).Moreover, this species is widely used in the evaluation of the physiological andgenotoxic effects of pesticides in both laboratory and field conditions (Poleksicand Karan, 1999; Jin et al., 2004; Kim and Hyum, 2006; Klobucar et al., 2010; Blahova et al.

, 2014; Mitkovskaet al., 2017). In this study, we examined the DNA damage in erythrocyte cellsusing the comet assay, as well as the hematological and serum biochemicalchanges in common carp (C. carpio) fingerling after 30 days exposure to different concentrations(1, 1.5 and 2 ppm) of the herbicide, oxadiazon.

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