history 105.

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Last updated: May 7, 2019
Mecca
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion

Muhammad
Arab prophet and founder of Islam. In c.610, in Mecca, he received the first of a series of revelations that, as the Koran, became the doctrinal and legislative basis of Islam

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People of the Book
A term applied by Islamic governments to Muslims, Christians, and Jews in reference to the fact that all three religions had a holy book

Ka’ba
The stone cubical structure in the courtyard of the Great Mosque of Mecca, believed to have been built by Abraham and regarded by Muslims as the sacred center of the earth

5 Pillars of Islam
1. belief in one God, Allah, and Muhammad his prophet2. daily prayer; pray 5 times a day facing Mecca- mosques- Jewish places for worship3. alms (offering) for the poor 4.

fasting (sunrise to sunset) during Ramadan (September-October) 5. hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your lifetime (and visit Kaaba)

jihad
“struggle” and historically refers to the personal struggle of Muslims striving towards the path of God

sharia
Body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life.

Sufism
A movement within Islam towards mysticism, spiritualism, and meditative philosophy. Extremely influenced by Plato

Ibn Rushd
(1126-1198) Spanish-Arab philosopher; also known as Averroes; influenced by Aristotle, his best-known writings explore the relationship between reason and faith.

The Crusades
(1095- 1270) Eight crusades done by Western Christians to attempt to win back lands conquered by Muslims, specifically Jerusalem. In 1270, Crusaders believing the Eastern Orthodox religion was heresy, they conquered the Byzantine Empire.

Usama ibn Munqidh
description of the Franks, counterpoint to Christian accounts of their own behavior and reactions of their enemies; misfortune if his son had to live with the Franks; stupid medicine practices; rude towards other religions; no zeal or jealousy

Edward Said
Palestinian, literature professor at Columbia; wrote Orientalism in 1978; white privilege is embedded in society; using the “others” to define ourselves; saying “obviously we’re way better than THAT (under developed nations); the person who defined the “other” has the power, and reinforces the power and structure; being defined as the “other” will have significant consequences on one’s life

Orientalism
An entire system of thought and scholarship dominated by imperatives, perspective, and ideological biases that expresses the image of the orient as inferior , ailean, or “other“ to the west. -Edward Said

Napoleon in Egypt
* Napoleon brought a team of scientists with him to document and collect ancient object

Ottomans
(1299-1923) A nomadic group of Turkish people from Central Asia who emerged as the rulers of the Islamic world in the 13th century. They conquered Constantinople in 1453.

Enlightenment
-18th century intellectual movement whose proponents believed that human beings could apply a critical, reasoning spirit to every problem

“Western Civilization”
Combinations of Ideas, institutions, Religious faith and ways of life

1939 White Paper
Proposal that Palestine should become independent in 10 years.

Immigration limited to 10,000 Jews per year for 5 years. and then no more. Passed in May of 1939. Not all Arabs very happy with it. Zionists horrified with it.

Arab Revolts
British supported Arab uprisings against Turks; Ottoman Empire defeated in 1918

1993 Oslo Accords
Palestinian Leader Yasser Arafat and Israel’s prime minister Yitzhak Rabin met to begin to work out a peace deal that included each side the right of the other to occur-Called for the gradual withdrawal of Israelis from the West Bank and Gaza Strip,

Lebanese War
Israel invades Lebanon. Results: PLO is destroyed, as well as Syrian Missile sites.

Chaos was added to Lebanon, and they became a new enemy of Israel. Later, a Suicide bomber kills 237 marines, which showed that terrorism was real in the U.S.

Yasir Arafat
First leader of PLO- Palestinian liberation organization. Used aggressive terrorism to try to destroy Israel. Very active throughout the 1970’s and 1980’s. To try to make peace with Israel, was put in charge of Palestinian Authority (PA).

Fatah
a Palestinian political and military organization founded by Yasser Arafat in 1958 to work toward the creation of a Palestinian state

Theodor Herzl
Austrian journalist and Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; promoted Jewish migration to Palestine and formation of a Jewish state

Zionism
A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.

1896 Basel Congress
where the Jewish state was founded

aliyot
Waves of Jewish immigration, literally meaning “ascents”.

Husayn-McMahon
Letters that tried to work out details of a deal; in order to be an independent Arab nation, they had to join the British nation after the Ottoman was defeated. Also had to initiate an Arab revolt against the Ottoman Turks.

Rules were purposely vague and only some states were declared independent.

Sykes-Picot Agreement
An agreement between the british and the french. France gets Syria and Lebanon, and Britain gets Iraq, Palestine, and Transjordan.

Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by Britain’s Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.

mandate system
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I; to be administered under League of Nations supervision.

Western Wall
for Jews, the holiest site in Jerusalem; the only remaining portion of the Second Temple, built in 538 B.C.

and destroyed in A.D. 70 by the Romans

UNSCOP
United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, investigate conflict, causes and grievances, desires, 1947, recommends partition plan, terrible map!

1948 Israeli War
Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Palestine attacked Israel / Israel vastly out numbered / known to Arabs as “the great catastrophe”

1950 Law of Return
Israeli legislation that gives Jews the right to migrate, settle and gain citizenship in Israel (born Jews, Jewish ancestry, converts)

Mizrahi Jews
Jews from Spain, Portugal, North Africa and the Middle East and their descendants, who are culturally different from Jews with origins in other parts of the world. Jews from North Africa and the Middle East are often described separately as this category; are Jews descended from the Jewish communities of the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia and the Caucasus. The term is used in Israel in the language of politics, media and some social scientists for Jews from the Arab world and adjacent, primarily Muslim-majority countries

intifada
an uprising by Palestinian Arabs (in both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank) against Israel in the late 1980s and again in 2000

Palestinian refugees
After the 1948/1949 War approximately 750,000 Palestinian Arabs were not allowed to return to their homes in territory that Israel controlled. These Palestinian Arabs were housed in refugee camps administered by the United Nations in the West Bank of Jordan, the Gaza Strip, Lebanon, and Syria.

Israeli Defense Force
The Israeli Defense Forces made up a military organization that was birthed from the Haganah although they saw a power struggle with the Irgun and the Lehi.

They received support from Ben-Gurion and came to take over all other Israeli military units. They were also very active in the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon in which they took Beirut under siege.

Hamas
a militant anti -Islamic fundamentalist political movement that opposes peace with Israel and uses terrorism as a weapon

the West Bank
a landlocked territory that is the eastern part of the Palestinian territories, its located on the west bank of the Jordan River in the Middle East. The territory was originally part of the proposed Arab territories, but following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, this area was captured by Trans-Jordan (later Jordan).

the Gaza Strip
the strip borders Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the south, east and north. It lies on the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the territorial units forming the Palestinian territories.

UN Resolution 242
called for Israeli withdrawal from conquered territories gained after the Six Day War, and the recognition and security of all states in the Middle East; countries failed to apply this resolution

Yom Kippur War
Egyptian and Syrian forces launched a coordinated attack against Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in the Jewish calendar. Taking the Israeli Defense Forces by surprise, Egyptian troops swept deep into the Sinai Peninsula, while Syria struggled to throw occupying Israeli troops out of the Golan Heights. Israel counterattacked and recaptured the Golan Heights.

A cease-fire went into effect on October 25, 1973.

Camp David Accords
The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.

PLO
one of the most infamous terrorist organizations around the world.

Created in 1964 during the Arab League Summit in Cairo, the PLO’s originally-stated goal was the “liberation of Palestine” through armed struggle while seeking to destroy the existence of Zionism in the Middle East.

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