During the spread of Islam, Muslim scholars took to its study by adopting ideas of early philosophers such as Aristotle. In the first passage, one realizes that Muslim religion is related to the ideas of the philosophers, where it cites that that they both have the same subjects, as well principles of the beings. This means that religion is a way of life just as philosophy. Philosophy focuses on the best ways of living based on knowledge since it is about knowledge. Religion, as well, is concerned about the best way of life, but on accordance with imagination. Both focus on the en result, which is happiness. This is the same for Christianity considering it is a religion, as well. Thus, one realizes that the ancient philosophers were able to live contempt lives despite not believing on religious ideas about happiness since the only difference was the base upon which each was established.
From the two passages, it can be realized that renaissance could be said to originate from the search of knowledge by the philosophers who sought to understand the world around them. With the study by both philosophers and religious scholars, a need for more knowledge to understand the religions had increased. In an effort to educate others, their ideas had to be represented on papers, which were available at the time. This allowed more knowledge as well as search of reviving the old knowledge that had been left by those before.
The two passages, in the second part, tell about the differences between religious authority or leadership and secular authority. These ideas are would be used to show that religion and politics should be separated from each other. Religious authority had one supreme leader, the pope in Rome who ruled over all people including property and all property belonged to the church. Thus, with everything being communal, it was hard for people to own their own property and all their hard work was not meant for their own gain. This would be used to show the lack of motivation that exists when one works hard while the fruit of their work is controlled by one person, whom they all had to follow.
Of the two passages, the first one completely challenges the catholic power, suggesting it does not allow people to be masters of their own industry. It calls for a communal livelihood that makes everyone equal and fails to allow people to achieve their full potential since they have to exist in common with all other people. The second passage states some truths about authority, suggesting that the religious leader has the authority to determine the number of people to hold offices as well as their qualification. This supports the religious authority, considering that the bishops are charged with selecting officials offices. This would leave the religious power still as the ruler. Therefore, by suggesting that bishops and religious authority should select official the second passage supports catholic power.
From the passages, it is clear that, during the renaissance and reformation era, women started taking up major role within the society and leadership. At this time, people in Europe had already recognized that men and women are equal both spiritually and in terms of work related issues. At this time, it shows that there were major issues with gender equality, where many men still considered women as domestic workers. Therefore, many had not accepted that women could take up other roles away from their homes let alone leadership. Additionally, the first passage suggests that the changing role of women was brought by the reformation changes. It also shows that, at this time, women were considered the weaker gender when it talks about the blind and the weak nourishing to come and take up roles.
The second passage talks about the equality of men and women suggesting that none is superior over the other and both have the same reasoning and mind. It suggested that both are equal with the same liberty. Before the reformation, it is indicated that some of the roles and chores that women carried out included grinding in the mills and kitchen chores. They were not allowed to take up leadership and decision making roles within bigger matters of the society. However, during the reformation when they were allowed to engage in other noble matters, and leadership roles such as being a judge. Additionally, she was able to have their own servants just as men would have. Their equality continued to be recognized and would be allowed same rights as women, including social rights such as having children named after them.