history crossword fertile crescent part 2

Topic: CultureSubculture
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Last updated: May 8, 2019
palistine
Name that is borrowed from the Greek word for “land of the Philistines”; it was the name the Romans used to in place of Judea on maps as punishment for Jewish rebellion

jerusalem
Capital of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, it was often a target for outside invaders due to its large amount of wealth and treasure that was concentrated in one city-state

Sanhedrin
Jewish legislative assembly, it was the governing body of the Jews during the absence of a messiah

shema
Literally “Hear”, it is the prayer that a Jew offers twice daily: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One”, it affirms that Jews are monotheistic people

cannan
Located in the southern region of the Levant, it was the Promised Land that Elohim had given to the Israelites; one of the major city-states that stood in the way of this was Jericho

Yom kippur
The most solemn of holy days in the Jewish calendar, it is the day during which the faithful atone for their sins (reconcile themselves to God)

ashur
Original city-state upon which the Assyrian empire was built, it served as the first capital of the empire until it was moved to Nimrud

Rosh hashanah
Jewish holy day/festival that celebrates the new year, it is a 10 day long celebration that is ushered in by the sounding of the Shofar (rams’s horn) and ends with the Day of Atonement

judaism
The oldest surviving monotheistic religion in the world, it inspired the other two religions of Abraham (i.e.Christianity and Islam); one of the main characteristics that set it apart from any other religion of its day was the fact that its people adhered to a strict set of ethical standards

toran
Literally “laws”, it is the section of the Hebrew Bible that contains the first five books, where the Law of Moses (or Mosaic Law) can be found

tiglathpilesler
Regarded as the founder of the Neo-Assyrian Empire

kohanim
Jewish priests who claimed to be descendants of Aaron, they performed the sacrifices in the Temple and were eligible to be chosen high priest

mitzvah
Hebrew word for “commandment”, there are 613 of them found in the Books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy; a boy–or “bar”–who successfully studied the Torah became a “son of the commandment”

sabbath
Jewish holy day that commemorates the creation story; in some languages it is the name for Saturday

saadducees
Political faction that emerged within Jewish society; they were made up primarily of the priestly and aristocratic classes, and favored the wave of Hellenization that swept through Judea because they prospered from the wealth it brought

david
Israelite man who united all of the Israelite tribes into one united Kingdom of Israel; however, his line of kings (dynasty) ended with the destruction of the First Temple in 586 BC

monotheism
Belief in one deity, which set Jews apart from other ancient societies

israel
Literally “one who wrestles with God”, it was the new name given to the Hebrew patriarch Jacob according to the Book of Genisis in the Hebrew Bible

Akkadians
Semitic-speaking peoples who founded the new-Babylonian Empire centered at Babylon

diaspora
Scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland; the jewish one was triggered by Babylonians (Caldeans) in 586 BC

kosher
Set of Jewish dietery laws that are derived from the Books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy, as well as from the oral laws; these customs set Jews apart from other societies because they emphasized cleanliness and good hygiene

Pharisees
Political faction that emerged within Jewish society, they were supported by the poorer majority of the Jewish population;they resisted the wave of Hellenization (making culture more Greek-like) because it disregarded the Law of Moses and the teachings of the early prophets, and the anxiously awaited the return of the mesiah

sumarians
Named for the capital of the northern kingdom of Israel, these people were members of the northern ten tribes of Isreal that were taken into slavery by the Assyrians in 722 BC and lost faith in Yahweh

passover
Jewish holy day/festival that commeorates the Exodus, when God delivered the Hebrews out of slavery, desiring that they be a free people; it was in this moment that God reminded them that he had destined them to be His chosen people

Ashurbanipal
Neo-Assyrian king who did well to collect over 20,000 cuneiform tablets in the firstsystematically-collected library

viamaris
This, along with the King’s Highway, wasone of the major trade routes that linkedEgypt to the Levant and Mesopotamia; thefact that the Kingdom of Israel commandedaccess through such major highways made itan unfortunate target for outside invaders

messiah
Literally “anointed one”, it “was a Biblical leader anointed by God, usually a king of Israel or high priest; these leaders were chosen by God to lead the nation of Israel out of trouble and woe

solomon
Last king of the United Kingdom of Israeland Judah, he built a permanent temple inJerusalem, which was destroyed by theBabylonians (Chaldeans) in 586 BC; itsdestruction marked an end to theDavidic-Iine of messiahs

tahakh
The most sacred text of Judaism, it is referredto as the Hebrew Bible; the consonants forman acronym that represent the three majorsections of this text

mojhes
Literally “Yahweh saves”, it is the originalname of Jesus (which is the Greek version ofthis name); he was the successor to theprophet and lawgiver Moses

eunuch
Castrated males who were appointed asprovincial governors during the reign ofTiglath-Pilesar III because (1) since they couldnot sire children, they were not concernedwith leaving a legacy of power, and (2) sincethey were low in social rank, they feareddeath if they disappointed their kings

abrahameunuchs brahma
Hebrew man through which his sonIsaac-not Ishmael-would Elohim continue tomake His covenant; he is regarded as the”father of three religious traditions”

linguafranca
Common language used to communicatebetween people who do not share a mothertongue; English is a modern-day example

yahweh
Literally “I am”, it is the name of Elohim, the god of the Hebrew people and the god of the Israelites

nebuchadnezzar
Neo-Babylonian king who is most known forbuilding the Hanging Gardens of Babylon forhis homesick queen; however, the Book ofDaniel names him as the foreign king whodestroyed the First Temple and deported theJews to Babylon

levites
Secondary Jewish priests who claimed to bedescendants of Levi, one of the 12 patriarchsof Israel and who were chosen by God toserve him in the Temple

Nineveh
Capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empirebeginning with the reign of Sennacherib, it was the location of the world’s first systematically-collected library, which included the “Epic of Gilgamesh”

aramaic
Language that served as the lingua franca ofthe Neo-Assyrian Empire, as well as theancient Near East (Southwest Asia) forseveral centuries afterward

daniel
Book of the Hebrew Bible (part of theNevi’im) that recounts the story of when theBabylonian king Belshazzar was shown ahand writing on the wall, spelling out hisdoom: “You have been weighed andmeasured, and you have been foundwanting” has given rise to the idiom “Thewriting is on the wall”

hanukkah
Jewish holy day/festival that commemoratesthe miracle of light: when there was no moresacred oil left to keep the Temple Menorah lit,the candles continued to burn for 8 days untilmore oil could be consecrated

tabernacle
Literally “tent [of meeting]”, it was theportable dwelling place of God in which theArk of the Covenant was housed; this waslater replaced by the more permanent Temple of Solomon

maccabee
Name of the Jewish “warrior and hero who led a successful revolt against the Seleucid (Greek) Syrians after they had defiled the Second Temple

tulmud
Second-most sacred text and major piece of Hebrew literature, it is a series of written discussions given by rabbis on the oral laws (which were written down in AD 200 by Judah the Prince), Body of Jewish Tradition

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