History Exams 100-230

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Last updated: November 30, 2019

Between 600-1300, Chinese art and literature…
produced famous stories (Tale of the Marshes)

The four Japanese islands are…
Shikoku, Taiwan, Ryuku, and Kamchatka

The Japanese Creation Myth…
involved the marriage of the good Izanagi and the goddess Izanami

Earliest known Neolithic inhabitants of Japan are known as the…
Jomon

In reaction to the Tang inflitration into the Korean peninsula…
Shotku Taishi made contacts with Tang rulers for the purpose of adopting Chinese governing methods

The “seventeen-article constitution” involved…
strengthening and centralizing Japanese government by establishing a supreme ruler and merit system

Shotuku Taishi
was believed to be the son of Izanami by the Koreans of Silla and people of Shikoku

The shoen system
referred to the control of tax-exempt lands by powerful arisocratic families

the new class of japanese military officials and retainers whose purpose was to protect their patrons and their property was the
samurai

known as the “way of the warrior”, the strict code of the japanese retainer was called
bushido

the “shogunate system” was established by
minamoto yoritomo

the essence of the “shogunate system” was that
governmental power became centralized and placed in the hands of the shogun while the emperor ruled in name only

the japanese word that refers to the “divine wind” of the massive typhoon that destroyed the invading Mongol fleet of Khunilai Khan is
kamikaze

the samurai
were like miedieval European knights, except they were equipped with bows and arrows rather than lances and shields

under the Ashikaga shogunate…
daimyo reliance on samurai protection increased enormously

the Onin war
effectively destroyed the power of the shogunate in the 1470s

the struggle between central authority and local aristocracies endured into early modern times in japan because
china established a merit based civil service examination system, while japanese maintained it as an elitist process, thus enhancing the power of the local aristocracy at the expense of the emperor

the paper, iron-casting, and porcelain industries in China enabled Japanese trade and manufacturing to increase during the period of the
kamakura

the genin were
the wealthiest samurai

the class of hereditary slaves who performed degrading occupations in japan was the
eta

in medieval japan, women…
had varying status, enjoying relative equality as well as suffering discrimination

shinto
involves the performance of ritual acts, usually performed at a shrine

the buddhist sect that taught the devotion alone could lead to enlightenment and release was
the pure land sect

japanese zen term for enlightenment is
satori

one specific characteristic of japanese culture is
its ability to blend native influences with concpets aquired from other cultures

what is an accurate characterization of the relationship between the Chinese and Japanese written languages
using chinese characters as phonetic symbols, japan created a workable “hybrid” system

what is a valid observation about japanese poetry
it was the means of communication between lovers

japanese poetry…
originated when tang poets arrived in Japan and opened well-attended writing schools

the japanese “linked verse” is known as
haiku

japanese haiku…
often focused on images from nature

the tale of genji
was written by Murasaki Shikibu, female diarist and court author

what culture had a painting style that presented the frail beauty of nature through the use of a smaller scale
japanese

“pot scenery”, what is the japanese word for miniature plant display is
bonsai

another japanese cultural contribution that represents a fusion of Zen and aesthetics is the
tea ceremony

korea…(influnced by..)
more influenced by Chinese ideas and practices than any other East Asian society

three kingdoms in early Korea were
Paekche, Silla, Koguryo

In vietnam
most males could take the civil service examination if they wanted

in spite of the impact of Chinese influence
vietnam developed chu-nom, a writing system for spoken vietnamese

early medieval church in the west
developed a more organized monastic structure under saint benedict

in effort to avoid the potential mayhem of the germanic system of personal revenge for the punishment of crimes, an alternative system that made use of a fine called
wergeld

what was accomplished by medieval Christian monasteries
served as centers of learning

charlemagnes oversight representatives, the “messangers of the lord king,” were the
missi dominici

monasticism in medieval europe
included women, many of whom belonged to royal families

who were the Asian peoople, defeated at the Battle of Lechfeld, who became Christians and went on to establish the Kingdom of Hungary?
the magyars

personal element of feudalism was most symbolized in the relationships involving
lords and vassals

piece of land that provided the feudal vassal’s economic support was the
fief

aristocratic medieval women
in unusual circumstances, could play a major role, as did Eleanor of Aquitaine

what revolutionized warfare in the early middle ages?
the stirrup

vassals
unfree peasants

the english king most responsible for establishing the “common law” was
henry II

by the end of the 13th century, the institutionalization of the english parliament
a system of power sharing between the monarch and groups within the society

France’s first parliament, began under Philp IV, was the
estates-general

the early capetian kings of france
were effective rulers only in the area around paris

central issues complicating the realization of an integrated Holy Roman Empire were
both the difficulty of simultaneously controlling the Italian and German areas of the empire and the opposition by the popes and the cities of northern Italy

The missionary brothers who created the slavonic, or cyrillic, alphabet, translated the Bible into Slavonic, and who developed Slavonic church services were
Cyril and Methodius

the slavs
converted to islam after the first crusade

what is a valid statement about manorialism and the medieval manor
manorialism provided the economic foundation of feudalism

the dominican friars
first led by the highly intellectual dominic de guzman

the medieval religious order which was noted for its commitment to living among the common people and ministering to the poor was the
franciscans

the medieval university
originally an educational association of students or scholars, as at Bologna

what were characteristics of Romanesque architecture
barrel vaults, massive pillars and walls, dark on the inside, gave impression of a fortress

what were characteristics of Gothic architecture
stained glass windows, ribbed vaults and pointed arches, flying butresses, a play of lightness

what were motives for the crusades
a desire for military adventure, religious fervor, desire to gain riches and land, allow pope to assume the leadership in liberating the holy land

who were participants in the third crusade
richard the lionhearted, saladin, frederick barbarosa, philip II augustus

the fourth crusade resulted in the
fall of constantinople

the early 14th century was troubled by
the little ice age

the black death
was spread by fleas carrying Yersinia pestis

flagellants
were christian fanatics who physically scourged themselves during the black death

in the early 14th century, the catholic church
was moved to avignon

the great schism
saw two different individuals claiming to be true pope

the council that ended the great schism was the council of
constance

Philip II Augustus of France accomplished what
waged war successfully aginast kings of england, regained provinces, established a royal bureaucracy, enlarged the power of french monarchy

high middle ages agriculture included
extensive swamp draining and land clearance, increased output by increasing the amount of land used for farming, improved motheods, adopting 3-field system

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