History WAPDA was established by an act of parliament in 1958to unify the maintenance of infrastructure previously overseen by provincial agencies.
Its Chairmen included outstanding civil servants like Ghulam Ishaq Khan, Ghulam Faruque Khan and Aftab Ghulam Nabi Kazi who were subsequently President of Pakistan, Minister for Commerce and Economic Adviser, respectively. In October2007, thermal power management was split into the newly formed Pakistan ElectricPower Company (PEPCO). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_and_Power_Development_AuthorityIntroductionPakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA)was established through an Act of Parliament in 1958. It is an autonomous andstatutory body under the administrative control of the Federal Government. TheAuthority consists of a Chairman and three Members (Water, Power and Finance).WAPDA was unbundled in the year 2007 whereby the functions of its Power wingwere redefined as Hydel Power Generation and Operation & Maintenance(O&M) of power houses.
WAPDA plans to build five multi-dimensional water reservoirs in thenext three to 12 years with the ultimate goal of seeking the development ofPakistan to meet the country’s needs in the water and hydropower sector. Theconstruction of these dams will help not only to counteract acute water threatsbut also to produce cheap and clean hydroelectric energy. These projects will not only be useful at a national level but will alsobe useful for the development of remote and underdeveloped regions of thecountry of origin.In line with its mission, WAPDA is working hard to use waterand hydroelectric resources in the country. The idea is to produce clean andeconomical electricity that provides comfort to consumers by reducing theelectricity tariff. The establishment of water tanks will cover the need forwater and the mitigation function of flood risks.
Workface, Managers andthe AuthorityDuring past 60 years, wapda has created a large and competentworkface about 165000 strong, consisting of professionals and specialists,engineers and technicians of various disciplines scientists, economists, administratorsand accounts for planning and building and managing projects in the field ofwater and power development.Water development having been charted in 1959 to develop and manage Pakistan`swater resources for irrigation drainage, prevention of waterlogging salinityand reclamation of affected land for increased productivity, WAPDA assumed thecharge of building dams, barrages and canals for creating water reservoirs anddiversion facilities for irrigation purpose, and combating the alarming menaceof waterlogging and salinity trough salinity control and reclamation projects(SCARPs). On singing of Indus basin treaty in 1960 the organization wasentrusted the task of building historic Indus basin project (IBP). During 40years of its operations the water wing of wapda has planned and built sixteenIBP components including two dams at tarbela and mangla, five barrages onegated syphon and eight inter-river link canals, in additions to four dams(Rawal, Tanda, Hub, Khanpur) one barrage Guddu and one lift irrigation scheme(Chablat Kas).
· AverageAnnual Flows of Rivers of Indus BasinThe catchment areaof the Indus river system is 364,700 squarer miles, whereas, the average annualflows across the rivers. River Average Annual Flow (1922-61) Average Annual Flow (1985-95) Average Annual Flow (2000-09) Average Annual Flow (2009-10) Sindh 93 62.7 81.28 81 Jhelum 73 26.6 18.52 22 Chenab 26 27.5 22.52 17.
90 Ravi 7 5 1.1 0.20 Sutlej 14 3.6 0.39 17.4 · Average EscapagesBelow KotriOver thepast thirty-five years, up to September 2010, 1094.88 MAF of water had goneinto the sea unutilized, equivalent to 10 years of canal withdrawals. Excludingthe water required for protecting the ecosystem below Kotri, rest represents adirect economic loss.
In monetary terms, after deducting 300 MAF required forenvironmental purposes, the value of unutilized water is US$ 149 billion. Forbetter water management, storage capacity should be equivalent to at least 40%of annual water availability but Pakistan’s live storage capacity of 11 MAF isjust about 7 % of average annual river flows.· WaterAvailability and Demand GapThe averageannual river flows are approximately 138 MAF, out of which almost 82% (113.
16MAF) occurs during summer seasons and 18 % (24.84 MAF) in winter, out of which104 MAF is available at the canal heads for irrigation purposes, whereas, only58.3 MAF reaches at the farm gate and 45.
7 MAF is lost in conveyance system.The projected demand for agricultural usage is 119.0 MAF by the year 2025. Thecurrent industrial demand is about 3.9 MAF, which will increase to 4.8 MAF bythe year 2025. The anticipated use for municipal and environmental use is 6.
90MAF and 1.46 MAF respectively which will be increased to 10.50 MAF and 1.70 MAFrespectively by year 2025.Power managementOn 14th august 1947, power generation capacity,inherited by Pakistan was only 60 Mw with 142 MKWH, of electricity productionupto 1959 pre wapda period, it rose to 119 MW only. The charter of duties assignedto wapda after its creation required the organization to investigate plan,execute, operate and maintain project in the power sector covering generationtransmission and distribute of electrical energy in the country. During 45years operation since 1959 up to 1997 wapda has developed the sector torespectable level by enhancing the installed generating capacity of the systemfrom 119 MW to 11,556 MW or 79 times.· Power Generation On June 30, 1997 the system powergeneration capacity was of 11,566 MW.
Total thermal capacity stood at 6741 MWafter addition of 320 MW from Muzaffargarh power station and 137 MW from KotAddu Power Station, which was only 67 MW, pre-wapda in 1959.the hydel capacitywas 56.3 to 43.7 in 1959 which is 58.3 to 41.7 at present through it was 33 to67 in 1985.· Thermal GenerationAll the fourteen-thermal powerstation with total installed capacity of 6741 MW cumulatively generated 19184MKWH of electricity during 1996-97 which was 15211 units and this is due toprivatization of kot addu power station Sr.
No. Power Station Installed capacity(MW) Year of completion 1 Gas turbine power station Shahdara 85.0 1966-69 2 Gas turbine power station Faisalabad 244 1975-94 3 Stem power station Faisalabad 132 1967 4 Natural power station Multan 260 1960-63 5 Thermal power station Multan cantt 20 1960-63 6 Thermal power station guddo 1655 1974-947 7 Gas turbine power station, kotri 174 1970-94 Strength of WAPDA1. Thegeneration of cheap electricity will help to reduce the existing tariff.2.
Reductionin import of oil and saving in foreign exchange ultimately increase of foreignreserves.3. Reductionin Load Shedding by adding 2,160 MW in Stage-I, generating 12.22 Billion Unitsper annum.
4. Increasein Living Standards of local people due to development of new town with allmodern civic facilities.5. Opportunityof new jobs for local people during construction and operation of Project6. Constructionindustry of Pakistan will also be flourished due to increase in demand ofconstruction material.
7. Social& Economic development of the Local Area and Population.8. Overallgrowth in economy due to induction of cheap electricity.
This will helpreduction in production cost of goods used locally and especially export goodsto make them more competitive with other countries.9. Projectwill create an enhance tourism opportunities in Kohistan and Gilgit BaltistatanConclusions &RecommendationsØ ? As Pakistan is facing acute watershortages, WAPDA’s vision 2025 projects are beingØ implemented on fast track to combatincreasing shortage of water and improveØ regulation.
Ø The country needs more water storagesto properly regulate the river flows during thecrop seasons. The Integrated WaterResources Management (IWRM) is required at alllevels in water competing sectorswhile, improving use efficiencies and adoption of otherØ water conservation techniques.Ø Canal water supply management needsimprovement to avoid wastage of water and for