Hiteshree Sakhare1 Sapna B. Verma2 Nehal S.
Kanhare3 1,2,3Assistant Professor 1,2,3Department of Electrical Engineering 1PIGC, RTMNU, Nagpur, India 2NIT, RTMNU, Nagpur, India 3KDKCE, RTMNU, Nagpur, India Abstract— This paper is for monitoring the speed of single phase induction motor by implementing ZigBee based wireless sensor network. The design of the system maintains security, provides high reliability and also protect from many types of faults. The system has transmitter and receiver section which are controlled by microcontroller. The communication between those sections is made by ZigBee transmitter and receiver section. The input values are maintained within the limit and speed of the motor will be in a controlled manner.The single phase induction motor is mechanically simple, highly reliable, rugged, lower in cost per horse power than Dc motors capable of more torque and efficiency.
This paper is a port of wireless automation. A Singe Phase Induction Motor adjustable speed control is implemented with hardware setup and software programme. The domestic application used here in this project is cooler. Key words: Single phase Induction Motor, speed monitoring WSN (wireless sensor networks), ZigBee transmitter and receiver I. INTRODUCTION Induction motor are widely used in many Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and utility application. This is because the motor have low manufacturing cost, Wide, Peed range, High efficiency, and Robustness. However, because of the involved model nonlinearities, they require much more complex methods of control, more expensive and higher rated power converter than DC and permanent magnet machine.
Previously the variable Speed drive had various limitations such as poor efficiency, larger space, lower speed and etc. However the power Electronic transformed the scene completely. Now a day, variable speed drive was a constructed, in smaller size, high efficiency and high reliability. The speed of the single phase induction motor (SPIM) can be controlled by various type of control method such as pole changing, stator voltage Control, supply frequency control, and rotor resistance control.
1,3,4 The speed of induction motor can b varied in narrow range by varying the voltage applied to the stator winding .this method of wireless speed control is suitable for such application, where the load varies approximately as the square of speed such as centrifugal pump drives, fan load. The terminal voltage across the stator winding of the motor can be varied for obtaining the desired speed control by controlling the firing angle of the semiconductor power devices (Triac).
2,5,6,7 For any firing angle (alpha) average output voltage across a Triac is given by v=2vcos (alpha)/3.142 Single phase induction motor is not self starting motor. Especially in Domestic purpose single phase Induction are widely used In many Electrical appliances namely ceiling fans, Blowers, Refrigerator , washing machine etc .The main reason behind using it is that availability of single phase supply and one more is economical i.e.
less costly in price So speed of induction motor is important. The application of wireless triac based control system are industrial induction motor, laboratory application, ceiling fan speed control, in home appliance, to control intensity of light, in restaurants or hotel, dimmer lamp.1,5,8 The aim of this paper is to implement a complete wireless Speed Control of Induction motor ZigBee based Technology by using Triac as a switch.
Fig1 and Fig 2 show the block diagram of transmitter and receiver. Fig. 1: Block diagram of ZigBee transmitter Fig. 2: Block diagram of ZigBee receiver II. SPEED CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR Synchronous speed and rated speed are two speed terms used in the electrical machine. Synchronous speed is the most at which a motors magnetic field rotates.
Synchronous speed is the motors theoretical speed if there was no load on the shaft and friction in the bearing. The two factors affecting synchronous speed are the frequency of the electrically supply and the no. magnetic pole in the stator.
The synchronous speed is given by; Ns=120f/P (1) Where; f = Electrical frequency of the power supply in Hz P = number of pole Speed Control of Induction Motor Using Zigbee Based Wireless Technology (IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 02/2017/416) All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 1537 The rotor speed of an induction machine is different from the speed of rotating magnetic field. The percentage difference of the speed is called slip as shown in equation S = (Ns-Nr) / Ns (2) Where; Ns = synchronous speed Nr = rotor speed The induction motor speed is directly proportional to the supply frequency and the number of the pole of the motor. Since the number of the pole is fixed by design, the best way to vary the speed of the induction motor is by varying the supply frequency voltage induced in stator is proportional to the product of supply frequency (Fs) and air gap flux ?m as shown in equation (3).
E = 4.44N ?mfs (3) Where; N = number of turn per phase If stator drop is neglected, then E is equal to V as shown in equation (4). Then the supply voltage will becomes proportionally to fs and ?m V= 4.44N ?mfs (4) Any reduction in the supply frequency fs keeping the supply voltages constant cause the increase of air- gap flux (?m). Induction motor designed to operate at the knee point of the magnetization characteristic to make a full use of magnetic material. Therefore, the increase in the flux will saturate the motor. This will increase the magnetizing current and distort the line current & voltage, increase in core loss and stator I2R loss and produce a high-pitch acoustic noise.
Also, a decrease in flux is also avoided to retain the torque capability of motor. Therefore, variable frequency control below rated frequency is generally carried out at rated air gap flux by varying supply voltage with frequency so as to maintain V/f ratio constant at the rated value. 2, 3 III. ZIGBEE The technology define by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other wireless personal area network (WPANs) , such as Bluetooth or Wi-Fi, application include wireless light switches, electrical meter with in home displays, traffic management systems , and other consumer and industrial equipment that require short range low rate wireless data transfer.3,4 Its low power consumption limit transmission distances to 10-100 meter line-of-side depending on power output and environmental characteristics.
ZigBee device can transmit data over long distance passing data through in mesh network of intermediate device to reach to more distant ones. ZigBee is typically used in low rate data application that requires long battery life and secure networking. ZigBee has a define rate of 250 kbit/sec, best suited for two data transmission from a sensor or input device. A. Advantages Of ZigBee ? All ZigBee compliant appliances compatibly operate on the same network. ? Setting up ZigBee wireless home management system is relatively in expensive. ? Ability to manage home appliance network remotely. ? Eliminates dependence on infrared device.
? No central control point- dispersal or work load. B. Comparison with ZigBee Table I gives comparison of wi-fi and Bluetooth with ZigBee which are the wireless technology. Stand ard Bandw idth Power consum ption Protoc ol stack size Strong hold Applic ation Wi-fi Up to 54mbp s 400+ mA 100+ KB High data rate Internet browsi ng, pc networ king, file transfer Bluet ooth 1 mbps 40 mA ~100+ KB Interopera bility, cable replaceme nt Wireles s USB, handset , headset ZigBe e 250 mbps 30 mA 4.32K B Long battery life, low cost Remote control, battery operate d product , sensors Table 1: Comparison With Zigbee IV. TRIAC TRIGGERING CIRCUIT Fig.
3 shows tha triggering circuit for triac. In transmitter section microcontroller is used to read the keys i.e command from the operator. ZigBee is RF technology is used to full duplex mode between two ZigBee. In receiver section ZigBee receive the command from transmitter and send data to microcontroller serially.
Microcontroller receives data and analyzes the data and determine alpha angle to trigger the triac to speed the control of induction motor. Various firing angle are used to provide the RMS voltage to microcontroller. Variable voltage is used to drive the different speed of induction motor. Zero crossing detector circuit is used to detect the zero cross of sine wave. Using Zero crossing detectors can trigger the TRIAC at accurate alpha angle.7,9 Fig. 3: Triac Triggering Circuit This paper consists of two sections one is transmitter and other is receiver. In transmitter circuit there Speed Control of Induction Motor Using Zigbee Based Wireless Technology (IJSRD/Vol.
5/Issue 02/2017/416) All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com 1538 are keys by which we use to send command to the microcontroller. Commands are receives by microcontroller at zero port of microcontroller.
Firing angle and speeds are assigned on the keys. ZigBee receives command or signal from microcontroller and transmit it to the receiver circuit. The ZigBee on receiver side receive the command or signal. Now microcontroller reads the command or data analyse it and determine appropriate firing angle (?) to trigger the triac to control the speed of induction motor, various firing angle are used to provide RMS voltages to microcontroller. Variable voltage required to drive the induction motor at different required speed. On receiver triac circuit is also mounted the output triac is given to load; AC input 230v is given to the triac circuit. Bridge rectifier is used to convert AC sine wave into DC pulsating sine wave.
When pulsating sine wave touch the reference it senses by zero crossing detectors which is a package of Transistor and LED, it gives the signal to microcontroller. In other words we can say zero crossing detector trigger the triac at accurate firing angle ?. in this way by controlling firing angle, the gate terminal of triac can be triggered at different voltages and hence speed of induction motor can be controlled by varying stator terminal voltage. V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This paper concerned on the experimental studies on simple motor load for speed control using wireless Technology through the microcontroller. The experiment is conducted by placing motor at a distance of about 20-25 meters and tested the motor to obtain various speeds by pressing the different keys in the keypad. Here tON is maintained constant and tOFF is varied accordingly. The speed of the motor for various keys selected in key pad is shown in table II.
Thus, we can vary the speed of induction motor by pressing respective keys. Sr. no. No. of Keys pressed Status/speed in rpm 1 Key 1 ON 2 Key 2 OFF 3 Key 3 100 4 Key 4 200 5 Key 5 400 6 Key 6 700 7 Key 7 1100 Table 2: Speed Control for Various Keys Selected in Key Pad Fig.
4: Transmitter section for speed control of Induction motor using wireless technology Fig. 5: Receiver section and Drive circuit for speed control of Induction motor using wireless technology. VI.
CONCLUSION This is the one of the method in controlling the speed, which is employed for AC motor drives. The speed control of AC Motor is performed using Zigbeee a wireless technology by the microcontroller. It has high reliability and long life at low cost and compact. The experimental results are analyzed and, it’s found that the speed of the induction motor is controlled in Normal, step up, step down speed requirement smoothly using wireless technology keeping 22 meters as the distance between transmitter and receiver section. Speed of the induction motor can be varied in a narrow range by varying the voltage applied to the stator winding. Wireless speed control is suitable for such applications, where the load varies approximately as the square of speed, such as centrifugal pump drives, fan load. The terminal voltage across the stator winding of the motor can be varied for obtaining the desired speed control by controlling the firing angle of the semiconductor power devices i.e.
Triac. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Department of Electrical Engineering, Priyadarshini Indira Gandhi college of Engineering, Nagpur for their cooperation. REFERENCES 1 Bayindir R, Sefa I, Colak I, Bektas A (2008) Fault detection and protection of induction motors using sensors. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 23(3):734–741 2 Reddy PN (2013) Microcontroller based speed control of induction motor using wireless technology. Int J Emerg Sci Eng (IJESE) 1(9), ISSN: 2319–6378 3 Simoes ND, Goncalves JL, Caeiro ML, Boavida MJ, Cardosco FD (2010) ZigBee/GPS tracking system for rowing races. In: International conference on advances in mobile computing and multimedia, Paris, France, Nov 201 4 The ZigBee protocol Alliance, Zigbee Specification, http://www.zigbee.
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