How the cultural valuation afforded to men and masculinityand women and femininity in society might interfere with gender equality?IntroductionIt has been foundby the study of many anthropologists that woman has subordinate status ascompared to men in most of the societies existed worldwide.
This study willdiscuss the impact of gender inequalityin our society, how cultural values regarding gender discrimination propagatein organisational processes. Moreover,this study will illustrate gender segregation is rising through the organisation in the light of Acker’s theory. Ithas been a part of the debate that the maleis more involved in organisationalaffairs then females. This study will also throw light on the impact of cultural values on masculinity andfemininity.
Discussion This studyelaborates the discrimination of gender which is set by different culturalvalues incorporated in the society. From the beginning,the inequality of gender has its origins in social and cultural issues. It has become a debate after the modern movement offeminism. In every social circumstance, the supremacy of male is beyond denial(Epstein 2007, p.5). But asthe times passes women acquire a dominant place in the field of business.
Persistenceof Gender Inequality Gender bias andinequality persist in the society and it is started from home to school.According to the research of Dickman(1980, p. 567), in school, almost everywoman suffered from inappropriate and inadequate science knowledge which had aneffect on their confidence level and itdeveloped a fear of teaching scienceamong them. From birth, both male and female are raised with different culturalvalues and gone through with different situations throughout the lives.
Thisincorporates different visions and perspectives among them and both possessdiverse personalities and stay on different paths (Cordier 2012, p.457). GenderInequality in Workplace Gender inequalityor prejudice occurs due to out-dated personal and traditional perceptions aboutmasculinity and femininity. When the topic ‘gender inequality’ comes, it isgenerally preferred to women who are the victims at workplace and face lot oftroubles due to gender bias and discrimination.
The study analyses gender difference in an organisation. Since the 21st century, the issue of gender inequality has beenprevailing in many workplaces.Organisations have their own rules and practices that promote the race, gender,class discrimination (Huffman, 2010, p.
255). From manager to trainee there ishierarchical structure based on the powers and authorities. It has beenobserved that critical projects were not assigned to women staff. Due to thisprejudice, the system workplaces have been facing a great hurdle to integrate with other society. Gendersegregation is partly created through organisationalpractices Gender segregation and differencesthat women face due to the conservativementality of the society that creates hindrance in their way of progress.
The study endures the word ‘class difference andgender difference’ as the difference of control over resources for the provision of services (Acker 2006, p.441).By the study of Kvande andRasmussen (1994, p.
163) it has been found that woman in small organisation gained more prominence status and recognise with more progress than in the big bureaucratic environment. Although, womenhave to face some challenges of workplaceand family responsibility they flourish due to less masculine aggressiveculture. In a big organisation male aremore autonomous and have more managerial authority than female. Gender segregation persists inmany organisations and in observed atevery operational level.
Men dominate inmost of the organisation like mining oroil refinery industry due to critical risk factors that are considered that male ismore feasible to handle these situations. According to Acker (1990, p.140), gender segregation at work includesprejudice in income, status along with paid and unpaid task assigned in workplaces. Masculinity is involved in most ofthe organisational processes. Feministprojects are introduced to introduce democracy in large organisations. Income andstatus inequality also partly created through organisationalprocesses Gender discrimination in pay or designationappointed to women in the workplace.Women are not provided authorities and autonomy as men possess.
Men usuallyhave appointed on high pay and women are kept on low pay as compared to them. Thisis a common practice that is strongly rooted in most of the organisations. It also seems that women are assigned same task assignment and jobresponsibilities with different job status and titles as compared to men whoare engaged in similar tasks. It is also a major issue that comes under thelight of gender bias and inequality that women have to take leave for maternitybut they have to suffer for it as their salary is to be deducted (Acker 2012,p.214). The most common practice in the society is that the multinational companies do notpromote bonuses to women. Women who are doing part-time jobs have no extraholiday and they do not get an extrasalary for overtime. Some workplacesfollow gender inequality and assume that employees should have to improve theirinterpersonal skills overnight.
In these circumstances,women got frustrated and the organisationhas to suffer the losses. There are some civil laws like equal pay act that ensuresthat women should have to pay equally as men if working on same designations (Kay et.el 2009, p.421). Masculinity; theProduct of Organisational Processes Men and women have differentperspectives and capabilities in acquiring any skill.
Men learned faster than women and are independentto complete that task. Men have directivenature whereas; women need someassistance to accomplish the novel taskassigned to them. So women and men have to face differences in the workplace.
According to Hahn & Litwin; techniquesencounter to handle certain tasks can be differentiated easily by employees’ gender. Both men and women acquire a different sense of capabilities and skill tosolve the problems of the workplace. Also, they both have a different way of style of tackling the problems. This createsdiscrimination in organisationalpractices.Gender discrimination in the working environment is generated due tophysical and emotional factors. These are the factors that directly affect theworking environment. These behaviours areultimate outcomes of the upbringing environment. Men do not bother to shout andshow his anger at the workplace whilewomen are supposed to maintain the ethics of workplace.
Differences in workplaces may arise dueto gender stereotypes of male and female that considers male as earningprovider and supporter of the house and women should be left at home for familyresponsibilities.Differences in cultural values arereflected in the upcoming generation. Forinstance, baby boomers are dedicated andcommitted people that may not be afraid of unemployment (Davis, Pawlowski &Houston 2006, p.430).
Similarly, female who iscompetent with men at academic level might have a different perspective and organisationalpractices in their professional careers.They both have conflicts in the workplaceregarding problem-solving techniques (Hopkinset. al. 2008, p.348). It is possible that both are right as per theirperspective but they do not agree witheach view due to gender inequality asboth possess different thinking criteria. The impact of gender inequalitylies in the social and economic culture.
These differences are inherited from the familybackground (Njajou 2007, p.12135). There is a majordifference in the mentality of a personcoming from small town or person coming from the large metropolitan city. For instance, Germany; recognised as it has one of the fastest andhectic paces of business transactions (Colette2013, p.88). So a person coming from this country has vast ideas for solving any problem rising in the workplace.
Gender discrimination has a great impact on the society, especially inan organisation. Ethnicity is alsocounted and considered as an outcome of gender inequality that differentcultures are formed on the basis of values, rules and regulations that are practicing in the society (Warner & Brown2011, p.1236).
Different traits are developed in both men and women accordingto their environmental cultures. Men are more focusedand tried to complete their tasks efficiently, promptly. As leaders, males havea dominant place in the workplace. They took bold decisions in the favour of the organisationbefore consulting to any female while on the other hand women preferred to takeany decision of organisational affairsafter discussing to their male legal advisors of their company (Epstein &Joshua 2008, p.12). Women lose focus or panic in a critical scenario, that’s why they are not allowed to handlecrucial projects in the workplace that leads to the foundation of genderinequality at business organisations. CulturalValuation Afforded to Masculinity and Femininity in Society might interfere withGender EqualityThe impact of gender inequality atworking organisations is enlightened inthis article.
This discrimination should be minimisedby developing initiatives that provide equal rights and authorities to both ofthem. The culture has its own organisedvalues that contribute to either inequality or equality of masculinity andfemininity. Managers of organisation canpromote the atmosphere of either equality or inequality.
It depends upon their mentality how they practiced their business dealings in order to strengthen thebusiness relationships with his employees.Cultural valuations that areafforded to masculinity and femininity in society might interfere with genderequality. Social and cultural values create a differencein the mentality of people. Mainly, gender difference is promoted by thosecultural values that are followed and practicedin the society.
Cultures can incorporate such values that lead to the economic and social development of women at theworkplace. Women should be treated withdignity and equity in every aspect oflife. They should be provided equal opportunities for education, training, and vocational activities that enhancetheir confidence (Warner & Brown 2011, p.
1240). Culture has a very strong impact on the people ways of life.It is the culture that can make the sociallyprogressive and effective and can destroy the society by his discriminantvalues. If a culture promotes racial, gender, religious difference in itssociety; hatred is developed among the people and the wave of harmony and peacecannot be spread. Culture is dominating factor that captures a society in itspalm. It has such an influence on the prevailing practices of the society thatmay promote gender, racial, religious equality, andeven inequality is also promoted by cultural values.
Culture valuations can legitimise subordinate status of women.Post-soviet countries have propaganda of gender equality that women are born tobe women and are free to live their lives with all equal rights. This movementserves to be beneficial for women in the workplace that they were recognised equally as men eradicating maledominant and bureaucratic culture (Schalkwyk 2000, p.
n.d.). Provision of equalrights to men and women promotes peace and harmony in the society. Culture can take initiatives suchas empowering the women skills by valuing their decisions, perspectives, ideas,and priorities.
They should be treated ashuman beings. They should be dignified and morally supported by the social andcultural values. Such reforms should be introduced by the human rightsauthorities to protect their rights from marriages to inheritance, economic andsocial freedom that would lead to women empowerment at workplaces (Maluke 2012, p.2). Many cultures institutionalise such reforms that have playedan important role to eradicate discrimination against women and havestrengthened women’s employment in various fields. Women should be protected bycultural values in order to promote gender equality of masculinity andfemininity.
Cultural values which are prevailing in any society interfere ingender equality. Thus, culture valuation afforded for males and females cancounteract the consequences of gender discrimination.ConclusionThis studyconcludes that companies should have to formulate their legislative to cope better results for their organisations or for society as a whole.
Womenhave to judge by her skills and capabilities rather than her class or gender.Cultural valuation should indulge in the promotionof gender equality. Equal opportunities at work should be provided to men and women. There should be no pay and statusdifference among the same designation employees. By practicing culture thatpromotes gender equality will maintain a peaceful environment and society willflourish in every walk of life.