However, men and women’s labor market outcomes remain substantially different. According to Eleanor Tabi (2012) Women MBA’s are more likely to be hired at a lower level , fewer promotions and less equity compensation than that of a man with the same masters.
For instance, there is a persistent gender pay gap that starts right after graduation. The figures showed that men were more likely to have higher pay than women who graduated in the same year with degrees in the same subjects, with the sole exception of English – the only subject where women graduates outdid their male peers five years after leaving university. Even in nursing, a course dominated by female students, men were still learning about £2,000 more just a year after graduation. (Adams, R. 2017).
Compare the annual earnings of full-time workers. On this basis, female workers in Canada earned an average of 74 cents for every dollar earned by men in 2014 (“Distribution of employment income of individuals by sex and work activity”) 2014. The significant wage gap is contributing to keeping females bound to lower paying jobs. Women now hold a paltry 4.
2% of CEO positions in America’s 500 largest companies. (Valentina Zarya 2016). The underrepresentation of women in influential jobs suppresses women’s opportunities and voices within the sea of men. The general-case glass ceiling hypothesis states that not only is it more difficult for women than for men to be promoted up levels of authority hierarchies within workplaces but also that the obstacles women face relative to men become greater as they move up the hierarchy. Cansu (Akpinar 2012).
Perceptions of gender identification are related to perceived gender discrimination. The ‘glass ceiling’ is a term which symbolizes a variety of barriers faced by women and by minorities as they seek to improve their employment status. Many studies confirmed the glass ceiling hypothesis and indicated that women in their early lives experienced a number of barriers during their decision of their career path (Phillips & Imhoff, 1997); and also invisible barriers, which continued to prevent them from moving up to a higher position in organizations.