HSED Online Learning Module

Topic: BusinessAccounting
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Last updated: May 17, 2019
 Multiple Intelligences 
 o   Theorist:§  Howard Gardnero   Definition:§  There are a number of distinct forms of intelligence that each individual possesses in varying degreeso   Tenets:§  Individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred intelligences in learning §  Instructional activities should appeal to different forms of intelligences§  Assessment of  learning should measure multiple forms of intelligence  
 Informational processing theory 
 o   Theorist §  George A Millero   Definition§  A general theory of human cognition, the culmination of two theories;·         “Chunking theory” suggests that people are only capable of memorizing up to about 7 chunks of information at a time.

·         TOTE (Test-Operate-Test Exit) A goal is tested see if it has been achieved and if not an operation is performed to achieve the goal. This cycle of test-operate is repeated until the goal is either achieved or abandoned o   Tenets:§  Short term memory (attention span) is limited to 7 chunks of information§  Planning (in the form of TOTE units) is a fundamental cognition process§  Behavior is hierarchically organized  

 Script Theory 
 o   Theorist§  Roger Schanko   Definition§  Events are remembered like scripts, plans and other knowledge structures and relevant experience o   Tenets§  Conceptualization is defined as an act or doing something to an object in a direction §  All conceptualizations can be analyzed in terms of a small number of primitive acts§  All memory is episodic and organized in terms of scripts §  Scripts allow individuals to make inferences and hence understand verbal and written discourse§  Higher level expectations are created by goals and plans 
 Situated Learning 
 o   Theorist§  Jean Laveo   Definitions§  Learning is a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurso   Tenets§  Knowledge needs to be presented in an authentic context§  Learning requires social interaction and collaboration 
 Social Learning  
 o   Theorist§  Albert Bandurao   Definition§  Importance on observation and modeling of behaviors, attitudes and emotions of otherso   Tenets §  Higher level of observable learning is achieved be organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or images results in better retention§  Individuals are more likely to adopt modeled behavior if:·         It results in valued outcomes ·         Similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional values 
      Experiential Learning theory  
 o   Theorist§  Carl Rogerso   Definition§  Distinguished in 2 different types of learning·         Cognitive- academic knowledge·         Experiential- addresses the needs and wants of the learnero   Tenets §  Personal involvement§  Self-initiated§  Evaluated by learners §  Pervasive effects on learners§  Est. a positive environment§  Clarify the purpose for learning §  Organization and making learning resources available §  Balancing intelligence and emotional components §  Sharing feeling and thoughts with learners but not dominating 
 Attribution Theory 
 o   Theorist§  B. Weinero   Definition §  How people interpret events and how this relates to their thinking and behavioro   Tenets§  3 stage process·         Behavior is: o   observed o   determined to be deliberate o   attributed to internal or external causes 

Cognitive Dissonance Theory 

 o   Theorist§  Leon Festingero   Definition §  Assumes that people seek congruence between their thoughts and behaviors when there is not, we seek to fix ito   Tenets§  Dissonance ·         results when an individual must choose between attitudes and behaviors that are contradictory ·         can be eliminated by decreasing the importance of conflicting ideas, adopting new beliefs or removing conflicting attitudes and behaviors 
   Constructivist theory  
 o   Theorist§  Jerome Brunero   Definition §  Learning is an active process where learners construct new ideas or concepts based on their knowledgeo   Tenets§  Instruction must/should·         concern the context that a student wants to learn·         be easy to understand ·         be designed to fill in any gaps in understanding 
 o   Theorist§  Malcolm Knowles o   Definition §  A theory develop specifically for adult learning o   Tenets§  Adults need to know why they need to learn something §  Adults need to learn experientially §  Adults approach learning as problem solving §  Adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value 
 o   Theorist§  F.

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Marton & N. Entwistle o   Definition§  Focuses on the experiences of learning from students perspectives based on phenomenological approach to researcho   Tenets§  Researchers should understand a phenomena by examining the student’s experience§  Research learning needs to be conducted in a naturalistic setting involving the actual content and setting people learn with  

   Adult Learning theory 
 o   Theorist§  Kathryn Patricia Crosso   Definition §  Consists of two classes of variables·         Personal characteristics ·         Situational characteristicso   Tenets§  capitalize on the experiences of the learner§  adapt to aging limitations of learner§  challenge to move to more advanced stages of personal development§  have as many choices as possible in the availability and organization of learning progress 

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