What foundational legacies were rejected by the cultural movement known as Modernism?
Greco-Roman and the Judeo Christian legacies.
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What were the three major forces that helped shape events between 1871 and 1914?
The 3rd republic was founded, Franco-Prussian War, Europe divided into two armed camps, the assassination of the heir.
3. How was life different for women during the Second Industrial Revolution?
New employment opportunities opened for teachers, nurses, office workers, and sales clerks. Colleges and degree programs were developed to train women in these fields. New household appliances reduced the need for servants and working conditions for women in factories were regulated by laws.
Which countries comprised the Triple Entente?
Great Britain, France, Russia
Which European city epitomized Modernism during this period?
What was one of the major causes of late nineteenth century imperialism?
The Industrial nations needed new markets and materials.
Characterize the avant-garde during the period of Early Modernism.
A time when writers, artists, and intellectuals pushed Western Culture towards an elusive, uncertain future (new and experimental).
Which two thinkers explored beneath the surface of human motives to find the underlying truth?
Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung
What did Freud think that human personality was?
The product of an intense internal struggle between instinctual drives and social reality.
Who developed a theory of a universal, collective unconscious?
List the three styles of Early Modernist literature that emerged?
Naturalism, Decadent, and Expressionism.
Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray is an example of which style of literature?
Which writer expressed in his novels the Modernist theme of a person victimized by forces beyond the individual human’s control?
Which innovative group of painters painted out of doors?
How did the first critics of Impressionism describe Impressionist paintings?
Many art lovers were intimidated, angered, and threatened by the impressionist paintings. They found one of the paintings in particular – Impression: Sunrise – was messy, and hurried, and insulting to more conventional art.
Which painting by Monet became a rallying cry for his fellow artists?
What was a major result of the Impressionist movement?
Art was now free to move in many directions.
Who were the leading painters of Post-Impressionism?
Georges Seurat, Paul Cezanne, Paul Gauguin, and Vincent Van Gogh.
Which painter’s style pointed the way to twentieth century abstraction?
Which painter launched the Post-Impressionist trend in painting called expressionism?
In painting, the term “expressionism” means:
A way that expresses emotion
Which architect coined the phrase “form follows function”?
What was the most striking feature of Expressionist music?
The development of Jazz music was influenced by what other styles?
West African and African Caribbean rhythms with Western harmony along with improvisatory call-and-response style rooted in both African songs and gospel songs of the Urban Protestant revival in the 1850’s.
Also ragtime and blues.
When do historians believe that the masses became a powerful historical force?
The period between 1914 and 1945 (The Age of the Masses).
What two events occurring in the spring of 1917 helped determine the outcome of World War I?
The US entered the war on the Allied side, promising fresh troops and supplies; and revolution broke out in Russia, interrupting its war effort and later causing the newly formed communist regime to make peace with the central powers in 1918.
Which three important European nations became totalitarian states after World War I?
Germany, Italy, Russia
Which European country suffered the most from the Great Depression?
Which form of totalitarianism wanted to fuse a population into one “spirit”?
World War II began with Germany’s invasion of which country?
What did the Nazis label their plan to eliminate the Jews?
The Final Solution
Joseph Stalin created the Gulag network. Explain what it was.
A system of forced labor camps in the Siberian wilderness.
What novel was a satire on Stalinist Russia?
There is currently a popular television show, 24, that has all episodes take place within one twenty-four hour day. What novel did this almost one hundred years ago?
What Modernist symbol was intended to reflect the hollowness of contemporary life?
Elliote’s “The Wasteland”
Whose poetry reflected the author’s anguish as a black man in a white world?
Who became the leading symbol of America’s dominance of worldwide mass culture?
Which 20th Century philosophy was concerned primarily with living an authentic life?
What is a key concept in Heidegger and Sartre’s philosophy?
Which school of philosophy was dedicated to defining terms and clarifying statements?
What was the first art style launched in 1917 by the young Soviet Union?
Describe why Picasso’s Guernica is an important and influential painting.
Protest against totalitarian harshness
What group of artists were famous for their outrageous acts?
What was the greatest threat to the West in the immediate postwar years?
What was a major consequence of decolonization?
The north-south divide
The cold war led to a race to stockpile nuclear weapons by which to nations?
United States, Soviet Union
Who was the key leader of the civil rights movement in the U.S.?
Martin Luther King Jr.
What were the major influences on Martin Luther King Jr.
New Testament, Thoreau, Ghandi
What philosophy or way of thinking taught that civilizations arise from deep-seated modes of thought?
In what novel by Solzhenitsyn does the hero endure the hardships of the labor camp?
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich
Who was the leader of the poets of the Beat Generation of the 1950s?
Allen Ginsberg, Dylan Thomas
Which type of theater shared existentialism’s bleak vision?
Theatre of the Absurd
Which Samuel Beckett play became famous in this type of theater?
Waiting for Godot
The center of Western culture shifted after 1945 from Paris to where?
Which New York museum was a major force in elevation the artists of the Western avant-garde to dominance in Western art in the period between 1945 and 1970?
New York’s Museum of Modern Art
Which Abstract Expressionist is famous for “drip paintings”?
Describe an “assemblage” work of art.
Mixing found objects with junk and adding a dash of paint
Which two Abstract Expressionists showed the way to Pop Art?
Johns and Rauschenberg
Which art style focused on mass culture icons?
Who was the most famous Pop artist?
Mao Zedong played a key role in establishing a socialist system in what country?
Who is considered the founder of Neo-orthodoxy, which claimed that God was beyond human reason?
Who insisted on the existence of the authentic God, known as the “God behind God”?
What military alliance was formed by the Eastern bloc in 1955?
What occurred in 1948 that contributed to making the Middle East unstable?
Founding of the Israel Jewish State
Which artist gave birth to a technique called hard-edge?
Which artistic movement was sometimes scoffed at by critics, who connected it to Dada?
What movie director founded the Neorealism movement in film?
Which art style was inspired by the theories of Freud and Einstein?
Who was the leading Surrealist painter?
What was the name of the creative group that developed a simple, pure step of interior decoration?
Briefly describe the International style in architecture
it developed a spartan type of interior design characterized by all white rooms and wooden floors, streamlined furniture, and lighting supplied by banks of windows by day and recessed lamps at night
Which inventive film director pioneered the montage technique?
Russian Sergei Eisenstein
What is atonality?
the absence of a key; alternative to the diatonic system
Which movie is often called America’s best film?
According to the textbook, what was the greatest legacy of mass culture to the 20th century?
The domestic reforms of Gorbachev on the Soviet Union contributed to what?
the breakup of the centralized structure of USSR
The Post-Modern novels of which author stress the connection of sexual freedom with political freedom?
What was the Chinese government’s response to the Tiananmen Square demonstrations in June 1989?
Public demonstrations led Chinese authorities to crack down on protesters
What is NAFTA? Between which three nations?
North Atlantic Free trade Association, Canada, United States, and Mexico
Mies van der Rohe developed what style of architecture in the Late Modernist period?
less is more, simplistic
Late Modernist architect Mies van der Rohe developed what style?
simple, less is more
What three new art styles are identified with Post-Modernism?
neorealism, neoxpressionism, neoclassicism
The Classical aspect of Postmodernism are evident in the AT building designed by whom?
neoclassical, designed by Philip C. Johnson
What author received the 1983 Pulitzer Prize for her work that tells the story of a black woman abused by black men and victimized by white society?
Which artist created a work that presents an indictment of the meat industry?
Who designed the Vietnam Veterans’ Memorial?
Maya Ying Lin
Who founded the Sundance Film Festival in 1980?
What is the Euro?
European form of money
What does “paradigm shift” mean?
when a paradigm shift occurs, one world view is exchanged for another, as occurred when earth centered gave way to Sun centered
Whose conceptual art projects include “The Gates” that was briefly adorned Central Park?
Robert Smithson’s Spiral Jetty is associated with what cause?