Human Lifespan Development

Through the 87 years of her life, Mary has covered 5 stages of them. They are conception and infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age where she stands at the moment. Since covering these stages Mary has been through plenty of changes and developments and I will be analyzing in further detail parts of them for my assignment.

Life begins with the fertilization of the egg by the sperm to generate a cell that results from fertilization, also known as a Zygote. It inserts itself in the uterus and begins the growth of an embryo. An embryo is an unborn baby, the organism developing since the beginning of fertilization till it reaches the finish of an eight week reproduction and is formed to be known as a fetus which is the result of contraception of pregnancy until given birth.

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This image illustrates the fertiziliation of the egg

When a child is born they are known as an infant for the first 3 years of their lives. An infant is a young human being at the earliest stage of human life. After infancy stage, when the young child is above the age of three they are then identified as a child going through childhood.

Childhood is a development in humans that comes in the middle of infancy and adolescence life from 4 to 10 years. Through out this life stage the progression of growth is properly enabled. After covering already two stages of life, Mary at the age of 11 was experiencing an early phase of adolescence.

Puberty and maturity kick in at this point and masses of frequent changed take place which have a big impact and effect in life, internally and externally.

Moving on from adolescence after 18, Mary was categorized as an adult going through the adulthood stage of life. This begins when a body of a human ends its growth and develops sexual maturity. It’s also about taking responsibilities and handling situations in an adult way, legally of age.

Adulthood is the longest running stage of human existence. It continues till 46 years and ends at the age of 65. It has been a total of 22 years since Mary moved on from adulthood to where she is now, old age, which is the stage before the final stage of life (Death).

Old age is the stage near the end of the human life cycle. People in this stage are likely to loose their physical abilities like their energetic and active levels, their sight and also hearing as well as their activeness to walk or move without required objects such as a walking stick or a wheelchair to get them to places.

Every stage in Mary’s life has a physical, intellectual, an emotional and social need. This is also known as PIES.

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Physical development is related to the body lifecycle of a human being. This includes various types of development such as the progress and expansion of human growth and senses like smelling and tasting and also related needs of the body like shelter, warmth and food and water.

Intellectual development is about the development of the mind and the increase knowledge of memory, thinking, problem solving, language development, decision making, reasoning and intelligence in personal, school, college, university or work life.

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The older we become and advanced we get, our development progresses the knowledge and points of our emotion and feeling for others around us. Having a sense of self-esteem, emotions, health and attachment are all factors of emotional development. This also implicates the feelings and emotions of happiness, joy, depression, sorrow, love and hate.

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And finally the development that involves you to interact and get to know others is called social development. In every person’s social life, it’s all about occupying a supportive role and a vigorous connection with family, friends, and colleagues and in any place of social sites, also forming a relationship with them in a formal or an informal way.

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Physical development: Infancy

At the infancy stage, Mary during the first three years of her life has experienced rapid development physically. Fine and gross motor skills are skills that contrast certain types of movements.

When Mary was born she was just about able to move her head to look around. After two months she was capable to make more movement such as raising her head and keeping her chest up while off the ground lying on her stomach. As Mary became 6 months, she can fully control her head and turn it around with out difficulty. Usually her front teeth at around 5 months will begin to appear and by 8 months her upper front teeth will too. However before her upper front teeth appear, Mary will begin to crawl at 7 months.

Babies can generally be able to pull up themselves up forward to a position that keeps them sitting down independently for a long time and by 10 to 12 months they tend to stand up on their own and start making progress slowly by trying to walk, but fail as they haven’t gained enough balance yet by then.

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Most babies can walk alone by 15 months when they have developed more balance and by two years, they can be able to walk up and down the stairs but only step by step keeping their both feet firmly on one step at a time.

By three years, at the last year of infancy toddlers can climb up the stairs without any support. However, babies can develop gross motor skills earlier or later than the usual time. Fine motor skills is all about small movements for instance picking things up and holding them. After a mother has given birth to a baby, the baby’s hands are normally shut. This is because they have a grasp reflex of doing this which comes to them by habit till three months of the baby being born.

Most of all the movements that infants make are reflexes. They suck on their mother’s nipple during breast feeding and grasp and grip on to things. They also startle and start taking their first steps. These all are forms of reflexes.

Intellectual development: Infancy

Babies learn from their hands and feet. They can follow moving objects and turn to where a particular noise or sound is approaching from. Babies also like to put objects like a building block or a soft toy in their mouths to taste and capture interest in objects that have bright colours. Infants commence using their senses towards colours and sounds, to identify textures, tastes and smells.

By six to twelve months, babies act in response to ‘bye-byes’ and ‘hellos’. They will wave and smile and develop words like ‘mama’, ‘dada’ and ‘tata’ as well as show facial expressions so that people understand what the baby is trying to make out.

Emotional development: Infancy

Infants are attached to their parents and carers very much. They start to create and build up a trust in them as they get used to the daily things there parents or carers do for them. For example feeding them, bathing them, changing their nappies and clothes and playing with them. Babies interact by expressing their affections and emotion. If babies are upset or angry or they want something that they have not got with them, they will cry and show pain and anger. If babies are happy they will smile, play around and do the sorts of things that will make them cheerful and excited.

By the age of three infants like to copy expressions and behaviours of other people. They take in all the actions around them like a sponge taking in water and want to become independent by showing off that they can do it too.

Social development: Infancy

Babies smile at faces they recognize and respond to them when their name is being called at around 6 months. They also begin to do things that they are not meant to and allowed to do. For example if you tell them not to go near a specific thing, they will make their way there hastily. Babies also feel nervous and not confident when they are left by their parents or carers. For instance if both parents leave the room and the infant is left there with a relative they are not relatively close to, they will react in a very uncertain way and try and stay away from them. This is because they feel that that relative is not safe. They also express their moods by crying, or showing pain and anger.

By 2-3 years, babies will be interested in various activities and start playing with other infants during play school or at any social place. They will become more liberal and socialise with them, and take turns and learn to share with other babies and children while playing with toys or doing different activities

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Physical development: Childhood

When an infant becomes a 4 year old, they are known as a child, in the next stage of life which is childhood. They are no longer an infant. Throughout their physical development they increase in physical size and they start attending school. As the older children are, they grow rapidly and strengthen in their development. Their diets will more or less change, by eating more solids and they will begin to explore more about everything. Also as they will be starting school very soon, their daily routines will change from getting up for reception or nursery till doing homework more middle school. They will need more sleep and relaxation then other in order to get their body functioning more.

Intellectual development: Childhood

Children by the age of 5 or 6 enjoy lots of creativity. They begin to like drawing and colouring with bright colours. They also like solving problems and can begin to name things. Also engaging children with stories makes them more interested and makes them think about them with additional pictures in their minds by using their imaginations. Most children begin to read at the age of 6 to 7 and speak in full sentences. They have the habit of taking about various topics and asking many questions. They also start to show responsive attitude towards people’s opinions, problems and understandings. They intellect the difference between right and wrong and can figure out why. Children also start to acknowledge school rules and games and often follow on that. They can handle different aspects of a situation at the same time. For example they can understand that the dreadfully the taste of medicine had, the quicker it can make you feel better.

Emotional development: Childhood

Children can identify their emotions all the time and can make out other peoples emotions. Like if a child is crying in a playground and another child goes to comfort them, they will ask what the problem is and identify with their situation. Children can also behave in a mature way to outcome other immature children or just because of their attitude or mood at that very moment. For example if a child is crying and showing anger for a particular thing that they can not have or are not allowed to have, the other child watching will look at the way they act and not show any response of anger even if they wished to have the same thing the other child is crying about. This shows that the child is emotional stable and is getting to know and understand how other people can react to different things.

Children can develop different types of control over their emotions. When a child is behaving in an odd and frustrated way, there are factors that cause this. Some factors include: being worried or scared about something, being bored, being annoyed and irritated, being ill and tired, feeling left out or lonely, showing pain and throwing a tantrum and many other factors that affects a child’s behaviour.

Social development: Childhood

Most often, the first three friends children have are the ones that they meet in school. Children’s self-esteem builds up naturally and confidently when they start making relationships with other young people that they call their friends. This is mainly because of the fact that children receive acceptance and love by their family and this boosts the child up with self-assurance to gather around with new people. Sometimes during their entire school life, children normally tend to have a ‘best friend’ or two, but in the early years old childhood they change the ‘best’ title and give it to other friends, and so on. This usually happens several times. Friends are of high importance to children as they help their social abilities and skills.

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Physical development: Adolescence

Physical development in adolescence is very important. 11 to 18 year olds are characterized by huge physical changes. This is the stage where you start puberty. Both males and females go through some of the same and different changes in their body that get them prepared for sexual reproduction and maturity.

The female breast develops and enlarges and their hips begin to widen and will also start to have their periods during puberty. Females also gain weight and growth of public hair appears. Their level of height increases and they develop estrogene. Estrogene is responsible for periods and breast development.

Males develop facial hair, their voice breaks and becomes deeper and their testicles and penis enlarge. This is when sperm is developed. They also grow in height and their shoulders broaden. Males become muscular and their strength increases.

Intellectual development: Adolescence

Throughout this stage the adolescence brain develops. They are normally studying or taking exams during this stage. They learn to reason through problems and are able to recognise actions that have an effect on their future. Their language vocabulary will develop more and they start to set goals and targets for themselves. Adolescence’s start to get to know beliefs and values of things and people, and begins to differentiate fact from opinion. Most people during this stage have become young mature adults. Adolescence encounters plenty of changes during their physical development and this effects their emotions at times. They are very ambitious. This stage’s choices and decisions are normally the gateway of what they want from the future

Emotional development: Adolescence

Adolescence can understand emotions and feelings and physically they can be fascinated and interested by other members of the opposite or same sex. They usually worry about their appearance and self image a lot. And have panic attacks and begin to go though lots of anxiety and depression mostly because of studying, working, relationships with their family, friends, employees or girlfriend/boyfriend or even leaving home. During this stage, they tend to have many mood swings as well and often conflict with their parents.

Social development: Adolescence

Social development at the time of this stage is very important. This is the stage where they make relationships with their fellow peers. They enjoy being in their social circle with friends of both sexes. But usually their interests in opposite sexes are strong, and some have strong interests with people from the same sex as them. They also have a very powerful desire for independence and begin to think about their future careers and jobs.

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Physical development: Adulthood

Adulthood is the stage of life that starts once somebody finishes their development and growth to reach sexual matureness. At this stage, both genders are almost certain to get married. There are three categorizes or adulthood. Young, middle and late adulthood.

Young adults have a high physical fitness. They are very energetic as they can go into employment or finish compulsory education or carry on at university for a degree.

During young and middle adulthood stage, men and women get married. Women have children in their 20’s and 30’s because they are fertile and energetic during these years. However during late adulthood, women reach menopause. This happens around the age of 40-50 years. Menopause is the time when women’s ovaries stop producing eggs and their periods stop.

In the middle stage of adulthood, men and women normally have problems with sights and sounds. They are less energetic and start to gain more weight because they do not include exercises and activeness in their daily lives anymore. There are many health complications in later adulthood as well. Their visual, auditory and motor arrears have decreased in strength.

Intellectual development: Adulthood

As mentioned before. Young adults and some middle aged adults usually finish their compulsory education and can access for higher qualifications by attending college, university or simple start gaining the knowledge of work by going in to employment. During late adulthood, people tend to gain lots of life experiences and normally retire from work as their bodies are unable to cope with lots of work and physical activities.

Emotional development: Adulthood

Adulthood is the stage where adults generally find themselves their life partners. This could be through a variety or links and networks, for example, from school, university, work or other social places. In middle and later adulthood, relationships between partners can become stressful and they have to put up with parenting and other family situations. They usually have complications with their household income and sometimes struggle to leave work in order to being up children.

Social development: Adulthood

Young and middle adults love to be in the company of their fellow peers and friends and usually spend plenty of time together. They are usually at the mature-ist stage right now and tend to meet many new people and keep their social circle at its best. Adults during the late period loose contact with plenty of people they once used to know, but still stay in touch with some. When people are retired they enjoy attending social events and taking part in social activities to keep themselves happy and not bored.