Majan College (University College) Faculty of Business Management Human Resource Management (BC 15-2) Human Resource Planning and Job Analysis Human Resource Planning and Job Analysis are one of most important aspect that an organization either national or international company looks it in details in achieving its objective. In my essay I am going to give the definitions of Human Resource Planning (HRP) and Job Analysis (JA); the method and steps to use HRP and JA, the importance and the berries of using HRP and JA. Pizza Hut is a multinational example of company that have effective Human resources.
Human Resource Planning (HRP) is an ongoing process of systematic plan to the best use of human resource requirement in order to ensuring there are required employee matches with requires skills in required job. Moreover, it ensures that there is no a shortage or excess of employee. HRP exist in the long short term organization as the employee is the valuable asset in the company. Thus HRP is important area in any organization because it makes a link between different HR functions and overall goals of the organization.
It is also future personnel needs and increase investment of human resource. Further more, the organizations have to take on account the changes in order to add value of HRP. Here are the main changes that effect HRP: •Changes in the overall employment market- demographic or remuneration level. •Cultural changes. •Changes in employee relations climate •Changes in the legal framework. •HR and employment practice being developed in other organizations. •Changes in technologies. HRP is integrated with strategic planning to achieve organizations through gaining of employee.
Strategic planning is the process of identifying overall organizational purpose, objective and goals and how to be achieved in which determines by top management. The following steps and diagram shows how the developing of HRP strategic approach: 1. Setting the strategic directions- this process focus on establishing the organizations vision, mission and guiding principle. It act and effect external environment on the organizations. It identifies strategy outcomes, goals and objectives. 2.
Designing the human resource management system- In this process it is defined HRM plans, policies, procedures and best practices wanted to support organizations objectives. Also it is conducted an employment systems review. 3. Planning the total workforce- in this stage it is decided the organizations required on the number and competence of staff through workforce plan of organization and job design. 4. Generating the required human resources- based on the workforce plan of the organizations, in this process concentrate on recruiting, hiring, classifying, training and assigning employees. . Investing in human resource development and performance- here in the process it is identified the organizations polices and procedure and suitable practice of reward management, performance management employee development, terminations and career planning. 6. Assessing and sustaining organizational competence and performance- In the final stage, the organizations should measure and evaluate its progress and outcomes and accordingly adjust the HR strategy. Basically it is revision stage. (A guide to strategic human resource planning)
There are three key elements of HRP: forecasting labor demand, analyzing present labor supply and balancing expected labor demand and supply. There are specific tools that help the organizations to measure the forecasting of above indicated elements. The first forecasting technique is Zero based forecasting in which company uses its current level of staff in determine of future needs of staff. The second technique is bottom up approach in which the company starts forecast by the lowest level of its staff and provide the required future employment.
The third technique is mathematical models in which the company uses the relationship between sales demand and number of employees needed. The last technique is simulations, which is experimenting with real world situation through a mathematical model. The first element is the forecasting labor demand means the company needs to predict the number of required staff. It estimates numbers and kinds of employees needs in the future. Some factors is needs to be estimated in order to forecast employees demand such as firm’s goods and services demand, its growth of exceptions, he internal financial business and the economy situations. Then the forecast is converted to employees requirements. The second element is the analyzing present labor means the company evaluating its supply or existing staff. There are some factors that need to be included in this evaluation such as educations, mobility, unemployment rate and government law, and existing and potential employees. To examine all these factors will help the company to determine the needed employee can be get internally or externally. The third element is balancing excepting demand and supply means to balance employee supply with employee demand.
The company needs to know if there is shortage or surplus of forecasted workers. If it is found that there is shortage, then the company should have a creative recruiting method and preparing for training program for new staff. If there is surplus, then the company needs to consider lay off or retirement of employees. There are benefits that the company gets in applying an effective of HRP. One of it is the top management will be aware and supportive of human resource. Also the personnel cost will be controlled. Moreover, there will be a positive action plan implemented. Finally, it enhances time management to recruit talent employee.
Despite that there are some barriers of process HRP. The employers, employees and trade unions refuse to accept HRP because they think it increase manpower cost as demand of workforce increasing and they feel it is not necessary as the applicants will be available due to unemployment case in third country. They also resist HRP because they view that its load the work of employee and mostly prepare safety human resource program from outside. In addition, uncertainties of HRP process make it unreliable due to many issues such as absenteeism, seasonal employment, technology changes, market conditions and labor turnover.
Finally, information system does not fully develop due to less impotence giving to HRP and low classing personnel department. Also there is lack of information about the economy, the other industries, and human resource trend and labor market. Job Analysis The second part of my essay is Job analysis (JA). There are many definitions of JA. In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, “Job analysis is the process of describing and recording aspects of Jobs and the skills and other requirements necessary to perform the job. Where as (Quirin) is defines “JA is a systematic approach to collect information about a job such as tasks, responsibilities and the skills required to perform those tasks”. It is also means collected information about a job positions in order to identify the main job requirement and to links this positions with needed skills, educations, training and other job requirements to be handle successful. Moreover, it is primary tool in human resource management in which in this method is used to gather, produce and implement the work activities, tasks, responsibilities, working conditions and skills for the job.
In the overall, there are a lot of jobs in any organizations and before recruiting the human resource department needs to define clearly the job environment and job purpose, and job needed skills and job activities, procedure, and responsibilities by using job analysis method. It requires collecting information and asking questions to define the job. JA is identifying the job not the person. It is descriptions and specifications for job not descriptions of person. In the process of Job Analysis, management team, supervisors, job analysts, job incumbent, unions and consultants are the people who involve in the JA process.
There are specifics information they are going to collect and analysis. They gather information about the design of required job, the design of the organization, the needed people that required for that structure, the qualifications and skills background of the job, the internal and external relationship of required job with other jobs, and the physical requirement such as machines, equipment and working environment. There many advantage that the organization get from JA process. JA helps human resource to find out the right applicant to the right place in the time of recruitment and selection.
It also assist in finding the type of training required and under take the appraisal performance effectively. We need to know some terminology of words before to go in depth. A Job is a group of tasks to be handled within organization. Position is a group of tasks and responsibly to perform by persons to achieve organization goals. So job position is designation of the job and employee in organization to achieve organization goals. As mentioned above that job analysis is job description and job specifications which are the outcomes of JA.
Job description is a document or statement or form that includes all requirements of a particular new or existing job position. Before any vacancy is published it is important to prepare job description. It give a brief description about job position and includes the title of job, the duties and responsibilities, skills, qualifications and experiences, working conditions and environment and the relationship of this job with other job. It is helpful in the recruitment and selections procedures.
Also it helps in assigning work for guiding and monitoring the employee performance. In additions it helps in HRP and in performance appraisal. Moreover, it helps to evaluate the promotion rate or retirement rate for specific job. Further more, it assists in find out the training and development program needed. The second outcome from JA is Job specification which means the minimum requirement of human qualification in order to perform a job. It is explaining the job description in human qualifications so the right person handles or performs the right job.
It includes the title of job, the educations and the qualifications for required job, special abilities and skills and relationship of that job with other job. It is helpful in monitoring in the selection procedure, and it give for justifications for each job. It also help to shaping the training program. It helps the supervisor of that job to consult and monitor the performance of staff. Besides it assist management to make decision for promotions, transfer or giving other benefit to the employee. There are many purposes that let the organization to have job analysis in organizations.
First of all, it is important in recruitment and selection procedures. It identifies and develop the job tasks that should be includes in advertisement, determine the salary level, the minimum requirement of education and qualification, prepare the selection test, prepare candidate evolution form and orientation materials for candidate. Secondly, it is a purpose of job evaluation in which it makes a fair opinion value of jobs and establishes a fair compensation rates in organizations. Thirdly, it uses in jog design.
In using of job design, it reduce the personnel cost simplify work process, and it increase company productivity and worker empowerment. It also improves job satisfactions and provides more work flexibility. It clearly identify what, how, where and who to perform the job. Fourthly, it uses in compensation to determine skills level, compensation job factors, work environment, responsibilities and required level of education that is related to salary level. Fifthly, it use in performance review by developing goals and objective, performance level, the lengths of probationary worker and evaluation of duties and criteria.
Sixthly, it uses to determine training and development needed in the company. It can be use to determine training content and proper test measurement of training. Also it helps to establish the suitable training equipments and the method of the training that needs to use in delivering the training. Seventhly, it is one tool to increase the productivity. It shows to the worker the performance criteria in such a way that encourage the employee for best performance and it use time and motion method to improve the work time and movement. Lastly, it is important in agreement with labor law.
It is identify the job requirement with agreement of labor law, Civil Right Legislation in US and Equal Employment Opportunity in US. There are lot methods to be used in the job analysis. We can classify these methods in two parts: classification based on property and classification based on orientation. Classification based on property has two types: qualitative job analysis and quantitative job analysis techniques. Giving interview, finding observation, keeping participant dairy or log and creating questionnaire are included in qualitative job analysis.
Quantitative analysis techniques include job analysis, department of Labor and position paralysis survey. Classification based on orientation has two types: job oriented and worker oriented. The job oriented concentrate on job activities and description of job tasks by using job element method, task analysis and functional job analysis. Worker oriented examine the necessary human behaviors that are required and needed in that job by using position analysis survey and functional job. There are nine steps that any organization needs to follow in order to process job analysis.
The first step is to identify the purpose of job analysis. The company should establish and indicate the purpose of processing Job analysis in order to know the best method to use in collecting data and to evaluate the time, effort and budget in order to perform it. The second step is selecting the person who involve in job analysis. The company should decide from where to have analysts either from human resource department or form consultant company or it can be used both. The third step is choice the suitable method of job analysis.
It is necessary for the company to have a background of each method in order to decide the best method that is follow in the processing of JA. Also a specific planned approach is required to examine a specific job. The forth step is to have strategic decision making. In this stage the management have to evaluate and determine the employee who involved, the method that be used and the type of in formation to be collect. The fifth step is to give the job analysis the suitable training to handle the JA process. The sixth step is preparing for Job analysis process.
The analyst should prepare the required documents such as survey forms, questions and etc. the seventh step is to collect the data by using one or more method to collect all required data. The eighth step is to review and verify that the data with supervisor or management in order to have accurate data. The last step is to develop of job description and job specifications. From the information that was being collect the analyst will be able to develop job description and job specification. Pizza Hut is one of multinational company that human resource deals with employees who have different language, culture and environment.
They are looks for employees as people capacity and it is HR department is fully integrated with organizations and it is the main key of making decision within organizations. They are giving the proper training to the staff, sourcing new staff and developing them for progress in the company and supporting individual growth in the company. In conclusion, Human resource planning and job analysis are important aspect in organization structure in order to achieve its objective and goals. Job analysis is correlating to Human resource function and spicily in recruitment and selection and to have better job satisfaction to employee.
By having successful HRP and JA, and avoiding the barriers, the organizations will get many advantages such increasing productivity to achieve its objective and goals. References (n. d. ). Retrieved 11 13, 2011, from http://www. careersatpizzahut. co. uk/html/hr. htm. A guide to strategic human resource planning. (n. d. ). Retrieved 11 13, 2011, from http://gametlibrary. worldbank. org. Classification of job analysis methods. (n. d. ). Retrieved 11 13, 2011, from http://www. humanresources. hrvinet. com/classification-of-job-analysis-methods/