Humanities 101

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Last updated: August 9, 2019

Humanities 101 Midterm Review Weeks 1 and 2 Mesopotamia: Sumerians, Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian Euphrates River Tigris River Fertile Crescent Uruk Cuneiform: wedge or nail shape marks pressed into wet clay -used for over 3000 years surnenans 3500-2350 Located in lower Mesopotamia Between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers Part of the Fertile Crescent Invented writing and beer (Kassi) Purpose? Records of goods and services 2700 BCE: rough date assigned the historical Gilgsmesh, King of Uruk Images: The Euphronios Krater 18 inches high 22 inches wide.Made 515 BCE The Ziggurats at Uruk and Ur: sunbaked, mud-brick stuck together with asphalt, 100 meters high, temple on top Created so humans could reach the heavens The Bull-Headed Lyre cylinder seals c 2400 BC Cuneiform Tablets Map: Find Tigris and Euphrates; Mesopotamia, Uruk, the Fertile Crescent Week 2: Terms and Characters Hebrew Bible: The Old Testament (Christian name) The Law Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy The Prophets The Writings Pentateuch/Torah: Teachings – first five books of the Hebrew bible (old testament)Decalogue/Ten Commandments: RULES Violation of these laws in an offense to God No punishment is specified therefore all punishments are possible Lex Talionis: compensation of kind (eye for an eye) Exodus: The road out Theogony Aetiology: set of causes – on the seventh day god rested = sabbath Covenant: An agreement made Abraham – covenant w/ him and his children – exclusive sign: circumcision Noah – covenant w/ him and every living thing – inclusive sign: rainbow Abraham – Made a covenant with God [Hagar] and Sarah Ishmael IsaacRebekah Jacob Esau Four women (incl. Leah, Rachel) Twelve sons Joseph Moses Aaron Ideas to think about in reviewing Genesis/Exodus Continuity of the narrative Dominance of younger son The ideal of lineage (patrilineal) from Adam to Joseph (to Moses) Selection Expansion of the family to tribes then to a people The repetition of the covenant The nature of the Ten Commandments compare to Ancient Near Eastern law Weeks 3 and 4 Images: Euphronios Krater (as seen also in week 1) Francois vase Broke into many pieces Found in an Etruscan tomb Shows a funeral procession.Places: Aegean; Crete; Mycenae; Troy; Ionia; Athens; Halicarnassus Three Aegean cultures 3000-1100 BCE cycladtc 2800-1500 BCE Sailors, traders Palace based Not fortified, not militaristic BULL RIDING Mycenaean 1600-1100 Fortified towns Militaristic, agressive Terms and names: Homer Poet, singer of tales – Blind man from Ionia in Asia Minor Dactylic hexameter Poetic meter Dactylic: Based on the Finger Hexameter: Six measure Homer (the Iliad and the Odyssey) Vergil (the Aeneid) In medias res In the middle of things” – this is how the epic begins Ring-composition Form of oral tradition Simile A way of comparing two things Hero code (including the ideas of prizes, honor and glory) Competitive, a competition for honor and glory Kleos (glory) Not limited in time or space It is preserved and disseminated by singers poets The greater it is, the more likely that it will last a long, long time Ekphrasis/Ekphrasis Literary description of a work of art Zeus God of Thunder; Main god Aphrodite Goddess of Love Hera Athena Eris (Strife) PeleusMortal; father of Achilles Thetis Daughter of Zeus, Mother of Achilleus Achilleus Greatest warrior; trusted friend of Agamemnon Helen Diomedes Odysseus Ajax Phoinix Patroklos ‘surrogate father’ of Achilleus Hektor Killed by Achilleus; killed Patroklos Andromache Astyanax Son of Hektor Priam Briseis Woman prize of Achilleus, stolen by Agamemnon Sarpedon Herodotus Persian Wars 490 BCE/ 480/79 BCE Historiography Ionian intellectual revolution Croesus the Lydian King – thought he was most happiest person Solon Traveller; Tellus the Athenian First happiest man Celobis and Bito/n Second happiest people Ideas to think about from weeks 3 and 4 The Heroic Code and its effects on the characters in the Iliad One must always come out on top glory Time and the compression of events in the Iliad The relationships of gods and men The experiences of men and women in the Iliad: how are they similar and how are they different What is human happiness? (This is in the Herodotus passage) Living a full life and dying happy and satisfied The relationship of the Iliad to Herodotus’ Histories

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