Humanities II Final

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Last updated: November 29, 2019

Being a slave carried relatively little social stigma in the Ottoman empire.
True

In The Prince, what lesson does Machiavelli try to drive home about human morality?
Acting in ways that we think of as moral for people, often works against a prince or good ruling.

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The medieval doctrine of transubstantiation taught that
classical Latin and classical Greek.

The social mobility of the fourteenth century was made possible largely due to the
Black Death

A fundamental source of conflict in the Hundred Years’ War was that
the English king was a vassal of the French king for Gascony.

Petrarch thought the goal of a Christian writer was to inspire people to do good rather than concentrate on abstract speculation. (T/F)
True

The social mobility of the fourteenth century was made possible largely by the
Black Death

During the later Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church
changed a great deal because it suffered from the same economic hardships caused by the Black Death as the rest of Europe did.

One of the technological advances that helped to end the Hundred Years’ War was
the adoption and use of cannons.

The English Lollards were the lay followers and successors of which late medieval theologian?
John Wycliffe

The Mongols ruled the vast territory of their empire directly
False

In the “Wife of Bath’s Tale,” the knight must marry the old woman who gave him the answer to the puzzle he needed to solve. Why did the old woman become young and beautiful and faithful?
The knight allowed the old woman to choose for herself.

Master Eckhart taught that
by renouncing the senses, one could draw inward and ultimately find God

The theological system called nominalism was based on William of Ockham’s fundamental insight that
human knowledge of God depends on what God reveals through scripture.

As the definition and identity of the nobility became less clear after the plague,
nobility increasingly was demonstrated by one’s lifestyle.

Which of the following statements best characterizes Machiavelli’s attitude in The Prince?
the ends justify the means

Humanists believed that excellent scholarship and poetry could only be written in
classical Latin and classical Greek.

What is the central theme of Christine de Pisan’s City of Ladies?
The book is an allegory that defends the character, capacities, and history of women.

The Golden Horde was the
Mongol dynasty that controlled Russia.

It is better for a prince to be loved than feared by his people. (T/F)
False

Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales in
Middle English

The commerce that occurred as a result of the Pax Mongolica was facilitated by the introduction of
double-entry bookkeeping and early forms of credit transfers.

Bubonic plague is spread by
Flea bites

After the fall of Constantinople, the attitude of the Ottoman sultans toward Orthodox Christians
was carefully to protect and promote the authority of the Greek Orthodox patriarch.

Holding legitimate and unchallenged authority over a defined territory is one definition of
sovereignty

In late medieval Italy there was a renewed interest in studying texts written in Greek because
Greek-speaking intellectuals fled to Italy as the Mongols and Ottoman Turks continually took territory from the Byzantine empire.

The goal of the humanist education system was to
produce virtuous citizens and able public officials.

After conquering territory in what is now Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Armenia, and Anatolia, the Mongols who controlled this territory, called the Ilkhanate, converted to
Islam

Machiavelli supports his advice to rulers by:
Using examples from the politics of his dayQuoting ancient Roman writers.Using ancient Greek and Roman leaders as examplesUsing examples from ancient wars and battles. All of the above.

Time became standardized in the fourteenth century due to
the invention and proliferation of mechanical clocks.

The Ottoman empire was tolerant of all faiths EXCEPT
Non-Sunni Muslims

Which of the following was something we learned about the Black Death from our in-class simulation?
It demonstrated how little one could do to protect oneself from contracting the plague.It illustrated why people’s faith in the Church was called into question.It showed just how quickly the plagued spread throughout a cityIt showed why the plague created new opportunities for upward mobility among the survivors.All of the above

Which characters are in love with Alison?
John, Nicholas, and Absalon

For Europeans, the most important consequence of the Mongol conquests was
the commercial links it established between Europe and the Far East along the Silk Road

Ottoman society was closed and intolerant.
False

The early humanist Petrarch constantly urged
resurrection of the classical past

The works of Boccaccio, Chaucer, and de Pisan all demonstrate
the spread of vernacular literacy

Dante’s Divine Comedy depicts the poet’s mythical journey through
hell, purgatory, and heaven

Which of the following metaphors does Machiavelli use to describe Fortune?
A lady who changes her mind and must be mastered

Two of the countries that illustrate the growth and development of national monarchies were
France and England

In 1588, the “Invincible Armada” was destroyed by:
the English

Luther believed that works of piety and charity were
the natural outgrowth of justification and Christian devotion.

By the 1560s the area of Europe that seemed to have the greatest Lutheran confessional affiliation was:
Northern Germany and Scandenavia

The Swiss city of Zürich is most often associated with which Protestant reformer?
Zwingli

In contrast to Lutherans, Zwinglians, and Calvinists, Anabaptists:
believed that only adults should be baptized, not children

he “Elizabethan Settlement” included all of the following EXCEPT:
accepting papal authority over the monasteries and convents.

At the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church:
reaffirmed almost all of the doctrines that Protestants criticized

After amending the Edict of Nantes in 1629, Cardinal Richelieu:
abolished the semi-autonomy of Burgundy, Dauphiné, and Provence.

Although he did manage to discover a world unknown to Europeans, Christopher Columbus did so in spite of
gross miscalculation of Earth’s size

In comparison to Lutheranism, Calvinism was much more:
authoritarian with respect to personal conduct and morality.

Luther received support from German princes for a number of reasons, such as:
their personal religious beliefsthe economic impact of the confiscation of Church lands.

the political advantage they would gain from turning away from Rome.their ability to enforce the Luther’s religion in their lands.all of the possible answers are correct.

After 1525, Protestantism was “domesticated” by becoming more politically conservative and by focusing on
the patriarchal family as the central institution of reformed life.

The most prominent northern Renaissance intellectual movement was:
christian humanism

The plays, Tamburlaine and Doctor Faustus were masterpieces written by
Christopher Marlowe

Which of the following statements is true regarding the witch mania of the seventeenth century?
It reflected fears about the inadequacy of traditional remedies to ward off evil

In contrast to the civic humanists, Castiglione, in his book The Courtier, stressed as the hallmark of true nobility:
an ideal of effortlessness and elegance at court.

The Italian Renaissance declined because:
Italy lost its supremacy as the center of world trade.

In the Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes argued that:
any form of government that protects its subjects might act as a sovereign

The term Reconquista refers to the
defeat of the final Muslim principality in Spain, Grenada.

The Peace of Augsburg in 1555:
established the principle that the ruler of a territory determined the religion of that territory.

Prince Henry the Navigator was motivated to promote voyages of discovery and colonization by
the desire for African gold and to join in the Ottoman slave trade.

Conceptually having succeeded in the crusade against Granada, through her sponsorship of Columbus’ voyages, Isabella
helped export the tradition of crusading to the New World.

Caliban and Ariel represent which of the following in The Tempest?
Two competing aspects of Prospero’s conscience

During the sixteenth century, in both Protestant and Catholic countries, marriage practices changed to encourage:
more parental control over their children’s choice of marriage partners

During the Renaissance, sculpture broke with the past in that statuary
depicted freestanding figures

The industry that most fundamentally shaped the sixteenth-century Spanish colonies in Central and South America was
mining

To what does Prospero attribute the loss of his dukedom in Act I?
His own negligence as a ruler

In general, which group of people profited most from the Price Revolution?
aggressive entrepreneurs and large-scale farmers

Between 1450 and 1600, the population of Europe
nearly doubled

Rabelais’s Gargantua and Pantagruel:
satirized religious ceremonialism and scholasticism

What does the Knight in the Wife of Bath’s Tale discover women want most in the world?
freedom to make her own choices

What is the lesson of the Nun’s Priest’s Tale?
Never trust a flatterer

What surprise lift’s the fortunes of the Squire Aurelius?
The magician releases him from his fee

What is funny about Absalon’s kissing Alison in the dark?
He kisses her arse but thinking it was her mouth

Walter of Saluzo is best described as which of the following?
Untrusting

One of the captured knights in the story of Theseus is surprisingly unhappy that he has been set free to return home to his city of Thebes? Why is he so unhappy?
He will no longer see Emily, with whom he has fallen in love

Who is the young woman Walter pretends he intends to marry?
Griselda’s daughter

How do they determine that the Knight will go first?
They draw lots/straws, and the person with the short straw goes first.

What does the old man in the Merchant’s Tale regain?
His vision

Which of the following characteristics does not describe John the Carpenter in the Miller’s Tale?
Quick on the uptake

How should a Prince ultimately be judged, according to Machiavelli?
By the outcome of his or her decisions

Which of the following best characterizes Machievelli’s attitude towards generosity?
Rulers are better off being considered miserly/stingy rather than generous.

To which of the following causes does Machiavelli attribute the downfall of Cesare Borgia?
His ill health after the death of his father.

Machiavelli believes that it is best for a ruler to only pretend to follow the religion of his people rather than being a true devotee who guards and promote’s that religion. (T/F)
True

How much violence should a ruler use to rule their country?
As much as necessary

Which two animals does Machiavelli use to describe the skills of a ruler?
fox and lion

Prospero teaches Caliban language and treats him fairly well when Prospero arrives on the island.

What causes Prospero to turn enslave Caliban, torture him with magical pain if he disobeys, and call him harsh names?

Caliban had attempted to rape Miranda to populate the island with Calibans

Only one of the noblemen on the ship is able to remain calm and keep a positive outlook. Who was he?
Gonzalo

From where does Prospero get his magical powers?
His books

From where is Alonso returning at the beginning of The Tempest returning?
Alonso’s daughter’s wedding in Africa

Where was Ariel being held captive before Prospero releases her?
A tree

What is Alonso grieving throughout most of the play?
Ferdinand’s death

To what does Prospero attribute the loss of his dukedom in Act I?
His own negligence as a ruler

Which two characters had lived on the island before Prospero and Miranda arrived?
Caliban and his mother, Sycorax

What is the reason Prospero and Miranda survived the usurpation of his dukedom?
Gonzalo helps the pair

What game is being played by two of the characters towards the end of the play?
chess

What oddity do we learn about the political structure of El Dorado?
They have no judge or legislators

Why does Candide plunge his sword into Cunégonde’s brother?
He refuses to allow Candide to marry his sister.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the religion of El Dorado?
They argue a lot about religious doctrine.

For what reason is Candide expelled from Baron Thunder-ten-tronckh’s castle?
For kissing Cunegonde.

Why does Candide find Dr. Pangloss crippled & covered in pustules?
He caught a venereal disease (STD) from Pacquette, the pretty serving girl of the Baron’s wife

What is the religion of Jacques?
Anabaptist

Which of the old woman’s body parts was eaten by soldiers?
Her buttocks

In which city are Candide & Martin arrested for being “suspicious foreigners?”
Paris

How does Cunégonde die?
She doesn’t die

Why does Martin believe the world was created?
To drive us mad

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