The art of Sheltering. Page 83
Consist of horizontal beams (lintels) laid across the open spaces between vertical supports (posts) traditionally of stone.
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The ability of a material to withstand bending
The ability to withstand compression or crushing
can define large spaces because its stresses transfer outward from the center (the keystone) to its legs (piers, columns, or door and window jambs). It does not depend solely on the tensile strength of its material.
Symmetrically arranged arches transfer stress outward and downward. Sometimes the outward thrust requires further reinforcement to stabilize the arch.
Several arches placed side by side.
Arches placed back to back to enclose space.
When two tunnel vaults intersect at right angles.
The protruding masonry indicating diagonal juncture of arches in a groin vault.
an overhanging beam or floor supported at only one end
In variations of bearing-wall construction, such as Conrad & Fleischman’s Holy Family Church in Parma, Ohio, the wall material is continuous– that is, not jointed or pieced together– in a system called monolithic construction.
When skeleton framing is made from wood, as in house construction
When stone conjoins with mortar– for example, in arch construction– that combination results in masonry construction. The most obvious example of masonry construction however, remains the brick wall. Stones, bricks, or blocks are joined together with mortar, one on top of the other, to make standard, structure weight bearing walls.
Invented by American architect Richard Buckminster Fuller, uses materials in a unique way. Consisting of a network of metal rods and hexagonal plates, the geodesic dome provides a light, inexpensive, yet strong and easily assembled building.
Byodo-in and the Palace of Versailles have similar compositional geometry in a central pavilion, symmetrical side wings, and projecting porticos anchoring the ends of the buildings. Through different use of line, however, they achieve widely different visual results.
Palace of Versailles
Frank Lloyd Wright
Pioneered ideas in architecture far ahead of his time and became probably the most influential architect of the twentieth century
Swiss painter that said a house is “a machine for living.” page 100
Frederick Law Olmstead
Map of Central Park, New York City
Piazza d’Italia (New Orleans)
Charles Moore made this. The effects of color in the Piazza d’Italia turn architecture into an exotic sensual experience, with bold color statements to heighten out response
Architect that is credited with the concept that form follows function. This means that the form or shape or design of any building must grow from the function the building serves
Built by Frank Lloyd Wright. This became his final gesture of derision to New York City.
Dynamics also define Canadian-born architects Frank Gehry’s Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, CA. His architectural theory creates functional works of sculpture rather than buildings in the traditional sense.
Constitutes a cloud measuring 300 feet wide by 200 feet deep hovering over Lake Neuchatel in Yerdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, and floating at a height of 75 feet above the water.
On July 20, 2007, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, became the tallest building in the world when it officially surpassed 1,671 ft, the hight of Taiwan’s Taipei 101.
Creative or utilitarian. In the same sense that one picture can be termed “art,” whereas another picture composted of those same elements, but that seeks only to present a visual copy, can be termed “illustration.
” Literature pursuing excellence of form or expression and presenting ideas of permanent or universal interest.
Works of fiction emanate from the author’s imagination rather that from fact. Normally, they take one of two approaches to their subject matter: realistic– the appearance of observable, true-to-life details; or nonrealistic– fantasy.
A fictional prose narrative of considerable length, has a plot that unfolds from the actions, speech, and thoughts of the characters. Normally novels treat events within the range of ordinary experiences and draw upon original subject matter rather than traditional or mythic subjects.
2 categories of novels
Sociological-panoramic: covering a wide-ranging story of many years and various settings.Dramatic-intimate: covering a restricted time and setting
Short prose fictional works focusing on unity of characterization, theme, and effect, as differentiated from more expansive narrative forms such as the novel. Typically concern only a singe effect portrayed in a single, significant episode or scene with a limited number of characters. We find concise narration and character that lacks full development.
Narratives designed to enforce a useful truth, particularly in which animals or inanimate objects speak and act like human beings.
A fable differs from a folktale in that it has a moral woven into the story.
Fables like the fox and the grapes provide us with examples of accismus- a form of irony in which a person feigns indifference to, or pretends to refuse, something he or she really desires.
Wrote The Blood-fued of Toad-Water: a West-country Epic.
Tells a story
The Canterbury Tales
Written by Geoffrey Chaucer. Page 132
Utilizes dramatic form or technique. Typically, it involves a portrayal of life or character or the telling of a story usually involving conflicts and emotions through actions and dialogue.
My Last Duchess
Example of dramatic poetry.
Written by Robert Browning. Page 133
Originally intended to be sung and accompanied by a lyre, comprises a brief, subjective work employing strong imagination, melody, and feeling to create a single, unified, and intense impression of the personal emotions of the poet.
Represents the most finished form of lyric poetry
Developed the sonnet form to its highest expression, to the degree that we now call this form the Petrarchan sonnet. A fixed verse form, it contains fourteen lines.
Sonnet XIX. Page 134
Consists of literary works based mainly on fact rather than on the imagination, although nonfictional works may also contain fictional elements
We call accounts of the lives of saints and other religious figures hagiographics
God Brought Me Safe. Page 135
A nonfictional literary composition on a single subject, usually presenting the personal views of the author.
The word “essay” comes from the French, meaning “to try” and the vulgar Latin, meaning “to weigh.”
The Federalist Papers
A long essay written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison
The Benefits of Luxury, in Making a People More Wise and Happy. Page 136
“sacred knowledge” Are the most sacred scriptures of Hinduism. According to tradition, when God created the worlds He revealed the Vedas for the welfare of the worlds, and when He ends the creation, he will take them back again. The Vedas comprise a large body of texts that originated in ancient India.
Consists of a composition in prose or poetry intended to portray life or character or to tell a story usually involving conflicts and emotions through action and dialogue.
The atmosphere of the story, represents the author’s attitude toward the story’s literal facts.
Literature appeals through its people, but nor just people alone. It draws our interest because we see a human character struggling with some important problem.The term “character” goes beyond the mere identification of a “person”. Character means the psychological spine of individuals, the driving force that makes them respond the way they do when faced with a given set of circumstances.
The structure of the work, embodies more than the story line or the facts of the piece. In literature, as in the theatre, we find our interest dependent upon action.
Plot forms the skeleton that determines the ultimate shape of the piece, once the elements of flesh have been added to it.
Most good stories have an overriding idea or theme that shapes the other elements. Quality in works of art rests at least partly on artists’ ability to utilize the tools of their medium, as well as on whether they have something worthwhile to say.
The Great Gatsby
Functions as a piece of scenic detail, but we can also understand it as a symbol of diving nearsightedness.
Consists of the flow of sound through accents and syllables
A verbal representation of objects, feelings, or ideas can be literal or figurative
Like images, take words beyond their literal meaning. Much of poetic meaning comes in comparing objects in ways that go beyond the literal
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening. Page 141
Are figures of speech by which new implications are given to words. Thus the expression “the twilight of life” applies the word “twilight” to the concept of life to create an entirely new image and meaning. Metaphors are implied but not explicit comparisons.
Are also often associated with figures of speech, but not all figures are symbols, and not all symbols are figures. Symbolism is critical to poetry, which uses compressed language to express, and carry us into its meanings.
Is a figure of speech in which abstract qualities, animals, or inanimate objects take on human characteristics. This device finds its way into many forms of literature, particularly allegories, and has been used since the time of the ancient Greek poet Homer
Is an intentional exaggeration for emphasis or comic effect. The device occurs frequently in love poetry.
Related symbols work together, with characters, events, or settings representing ideas or moral qualities. Often the characters of an allegory personify abstractions, such as Fellowship and Good Deeds in the fifteenth-century English morality play “Everyman”
Uphill. Page 142
The coupling of words that sound alike- constitutes the most common sound structure in poetry. It ties the sense together with the sound.
Rhyme can be masculine, feminine, or triple.
A second type of sound structure, repeats an initial sound for effect.
Uses a similarity among vowels but not consonants
Repeats or involves recurrence of identical or similar consonants, as in “The ousel cock so black of hue”
Refers to the type and number of rhythmic units in a line. We call rhythmic units feet. Four common kinds of feet are iambic, trochaic, anapestic, and dactylic
Also called verse, determines the basic rhythmic pattern of the poem. Lines take their names from the number of feet they contain.
The verifiable details around which writers shape biographies, often they have a way of becoming elusive when they go beyond birth, death, marriage, and other date-related occurrences.
Stories or observations about moments in a biography. Take the basic facts and expand them for illustrative purposes, thereby creating interest. Either true or untrue, anecdotes serve the purpose of creating a memorable generalization. They also sometimes generate debate or controversy.
Roselilly. Page 144
Written by Alice Walker. Page 144