I. burden. In addition to that, Australian economy

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Last updated: September 26, 2019

     I.        Introduction Eating healthydiet is an integral part in order to achieve good quality of life and betterwellbeing. Adopting healthy diet life style can improve our health as well asprovide protection against many chronic diseases.

(1)  Dietary advicesthat grounded on scientific evidence to promote healthy food is very crucial ifwe are aiming at achieving better health among Australians. The AustralianDietary Guidelines and the Australian Guide to healthy Eating are goodexamples. (1)Food choices areaffected by many influences, for instance, cultural backgrounds, philosophicalreasons such as being vegetarian and many other personal preferences.All these factorsshould be considered when developing interventions and advices. (1)Worldwide and inparticular in Australia, majority of heath harms are due to poor diet risenfrom eating food with supplemented sugar, saturated fat, high energy as well asconsuming excess amount of salt. The risk of Obesity and other diseases relatedto diet may be substantially increased by consuming these kinds of food on afrequently basis. (1)  Obesity has unfavourable health as wellas economic effects such as chronic diseases as well as sudden death.

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A totalhealth burden equal to 7% was reported in Australia 2011, 63% of burden due toobesity was reported as fatal burden. In addition to that, Australian economy isfound to be burdened by $8.6 billion annually due to Obesity (2011-2012). (2) Vulnerability of indigenous adults tobecome Obese is very high when its compared to non-indigenous people. The samecase applied to people with low socio-economic status when they are compared tohigh socio-economic status. Moreover, living in remote areas and outside majorcities also increase the vulnerability. (3) The most common way used nowadays todefine whether a person is underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese isBody Mass Index (BMI) which is mainly centred on measuring height and weight.

(4)  Prevalence of obesity among Australian aged 18 years and abovewere reported to be very high which comprise 63.4% (11.2 million people) inyear 2014-2015. While people with normal weight and underweight represented 35.0%,1.6% respectively. Overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was reported as70.8% among men wile 56.

3% was reported among women. (4)According to study published on 2003 by Australian Burden ofDisease that 11% of the total burden of disease among indigenous are due tohigh body mass. (3)  While prevalence of obesity and overweight is high (66%) amongindigenous people aged 15 years and above, combined overweight and obesity arehigher among females compared to males (67% compared to 64%). (3) and this canbe explained by the fact that 43% were reported eating sufficient daily amountof fruits and only 5% are consuming the adequate amount of vegetables.Consuming small amounts of vegetables and fruits was responsible for 4% oftotal burden of disease among indigenous people.

(3)Poor nutrition also could lead to malnutrition as well asmany other diseases, for instance cancers, diabetes and cerebrovasculardiseases.      II.        Aimand research questionsThe aim of this study is to investigate what are theperceived motivators and barriers that could lead to or restrict healthy eatingbehaviour among young indigenous Australian men (Aged 18-35 years).Ø  Researchquestions:o  What are the factors that affect their preferences in food choices?o  How do they perceive “healthy diet”?o  What are the motivators which make indigenous men eat healthy food? o  What are the perceived barriers behind restricting young indigenouspeople from adopting healthy diet? III.

        RationaleWhy indigenous Australian men?First of all, there is a huge gap in research and lack of knowledge regarding the motivators and barriers tohealthy diet among indigenous people.Moreover, according to several reports,indigenous health is very poor when its compared to non-indigenous Australians.(5)(6)Recent reports published by AustralianBureau of statistics showed the huge gap in life expectancy between indigenousand non-indigenous men which is measured as 11.5 years lower. In addition tothat, the increase of two folds mortality rate of indigenous compared tonon-indigenous, and that was observed five times higher among young adults.

(7)Finally, it clear that Obesity and othersuch cardiovascular and diabetes have the biggest burden of disease amongindigenous men. (3)   IV.        MethodsA qualitativedesign, triangulation as a method of data collection will be adopted by using acombination of focus groups discussion and semi-structured interviews.

These two approachesare chosen because they can be conducted in naturalistic settings which maystimulate and encourage more openness and frankness that could help to answerthe primary research questions. Questions will be used during interviews and focus group discussion relatedto healthy diet will be developed based on the definition of healthy dietaccording to Australian Dietary Guidelines. Healthy diet defined by TheAustralian Dietary Guidelines are based on the current scientific evidence (1).Data collection:Triangulation methodology; using combination of focusgroups discussion and semi-structured interviews is not to cross validate thedata, but it’s to capture different dimensions related to research questions.Six focus group discussions, video recorded will beconducted; each group will be composed of 6-9 men. Duration will be around 1hour approximately.Focus groups will be divided into three categoriesbased on BMI of participants; overweight, obese and normal weight people.

Each participant will be assigned to one focus groupcategory based on BMI and age; in order to create homogeneity which could motivatethem to talk and share their thoughts and opinions. In addition to that 15 semi-structured,audio-recorded in-depth interviews will be conducted. The interviews design willbe as the following order: introduction, questions and answers and conclusion.

Duration of interviews will be 30-60 minutes. Participants and setting:Men aged (18-35 years), Indigenous Australian, Englishspeaker who has been living in Australia since birth.Participants will be recruited through social media, postersand flyers will be distributed to neighbourhoods and work places. Firstly, theywill be required to fill questionnaire containing questions about their date ofbirth, height and weight.Height and weight will be used to calculate their BMI.All interviews and focus groups will be conducted ina convenient and favourable setting.Hotel room will be reserved for conducting both interviewsand focus groups.

Since this study will be conducted with limitedbudget, no compensations will be provided.Refreshments (tea, cookies) will be provided to allparticipants.  Sampling:Purposeful sampling method will be applied, Samples will beselected purposefully based on ethnicity, age. (8)Material/dataanalysis:Content analysiswill be applied as all data will beanalysed using NVivo software version 11.4.2. (9)Audio materialrecorded from semi-structured interviews as well as visual data collected fromfocus groups discussion will be transcribed and coded by using NVivo software. Thematic analysiswill be implemented for identifying themes until reaching saturation point isachieved.

   V.        EthicalconsiderationAll participants will be providedwith statement in English language and will provide written informed consent totheir participation. The study will get approvals from University of GothenburgResearch Ethics Committee as well as Australian Human Research Ethics Committee(HRECs) and any other relevant organisations and community leaders in eachlocation.Confidentiality of participantswill be assured and maintained throughout the study.  VI.

        PreviousresearchThere is only one pervious studyconducted about motivators and barriers to healthy diet but it was limited to non-indigenousAustralian. There is lack of knowledge regrading this topic among indigenouspeople.Pervious study titleis “Young adult males’ motivators andperceived barriers towards eating healthily and being active” (10).

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