IB U.S History Chapter 18

Topic: BusinessHard Work
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Last updated: May 1, 2019
Thomas Edison
American inventor and physicist who took out more than 1,000 patents in his lifetime. His inventions include the telegraph (1869), microphone (1877), and light bulb (1879). He also designed the first power plant (1881-82), making possible the widespread distribution of electricity. During World War I, he worked on a number of military devices, including flamethrowers, periscopes, and torpedoes.


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T. Barnum

Open the American Museum in New York in 1842, this wasnt a showcase for art or nature, but a great freak show populated by midgets, Siamese twins, magicians, and ventriloquists. He was a genius in publicizing his ventures with garish posters and elebrate nrespaper announcments. Later in the 1870s he launched the famous circus.A nineteenth-century American showman known for his circus, “The Greatest Show on Earth.”

Department Stores
Brought together many products under one roof such as clothing and furnature; gave excitement to shopping.

Attracted urban middle class-shoppers and provided working-class jobs (many for women); consumerism and showed class division;

Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme court case that violated the 14th amendment ; jim crow laws were set up because of this (1896)A case in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregated, “equal but separate” public accommodations for blacks and whites did not violate the 14th amendment. This ruling made segregation legal.

“Muscular Christianity”
An evangelical movement combining the christian and chivalric ideals of manliness. It included the belief that healthy bodies were needed alongside healthy minds in order to serve god.

Young Men’s and Women’s Christian Associations; established before Civil war and combined physical and other kinds of education with religious teachings.

Negro Leauges
Formed by African Americans as a result of being excluded from participating professionally in the American and National baseball leagues, the most popular American sport.

Gibson Girl
The personification of a feminine ideal as portrayed in the satirical pen-and-ink-illustrated stories created by illustrator Charles Dana Gibson during a 20-year period spanning the late nineteenth and early twentieth century in the United States.Became a popular icon of the new women. She was shown relishering her freedom by being active (biking, playing tennis, or playing golf), meant woman could make it big and did have buying power, created by charles dana gibson

John Muir
Muir was an inventor from a farm on Wisconsin in the mid 1800’s, and he had a very religious, Scots Presbyterian, upbringing. This religious background helped form and develop his love for nature, and especially the Yosemite Valley. Muir was one of the first famous people to declare his appreciation for the beauty of natural, environmental monuments, which helped spread the preservation of more national parks and monuments.

Sierra Club
it dedicated itself to preserving the wildness of the western landscape.It was founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California, by the conservationist and preservationist John Muir, who became its first president.

National Park Service
is the U.S. federal agency that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the an act of the same name.

National Audobon Society
Joint of state organizations. Women were vital and promotes boycotts of hats with plumage

Antiquities Act (1906)
Enabled the U.S.

president, without congressional approval to set aside “objects of historic and scientific interest” as national monuments, including the Grand Canyon

Comstock Act (1873)
Prohibited circulation of almost any information about sex and birth control

Booker T. Washington
Washington was a former slave who perfectly exemplified self-help in the years after reconstruction. He started the Tuskegee Institute in 1881, an important educational project that helped young men and women get what they needed to start their own livings. Washington was extremely important, especially as a beacon of hope for many other former slaves and poor black people of time, giving them the inspiration to work hard and make money.

Tuskeegee Institute
A normal and industrial school led by Booker T. Washington in Tuskegee, Alabama. It focused on training young black students in agriculture and the trades to help them achieve economic independence. Washington justified segregated, vocational training as a necessary first step on the road to racial equality, although critics accused him of being too “accomodationist”.

Atlanta Compromise
A speech made by Washington in Atlanta that outlined the philosophy that blacks should focus on economic gains, go to school, learn skills, and work their way up the ladder and that Southern whites should help out to create an unresentful peop

appealing to what they saw as women’s special talents as mothers, Christians and Moral Guides

Founded in 1874 and led by Frances Willard. First organization to fight domestic violence. Prompted leaders to think about industrialization’s other negative effects on society. Backed up the Prohibition Party. Encouraged women to join the national debate over poverty and inequality of wealth. (Woman’s Christian Temperance Union)

Francis Willard
an American educator, temperance reformer, and women’s suffragist. Her influence was instrumental in the passage of the Eighteenth (Prohibition) and Nineteenth (Women Suffrage) Amendments to the United States Constitution. Willard became the national president of the World Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, or World WCTU, in 1879, and remained president for 19 years.

She developed the slogan “Do everything” for the women of the WCTU to incite lobbying, petitioning, preaching, publication, and education.

Ida B. Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores

Won full ballots for women in Colorado(1893), Idaho (1896), and Utah (1896, reestablished as Utah gained statehood).

By 1913, most women living west ofthe Mississippi River had the ballot. In other localities, women could vote in municipal elections, school elections, or liquor referenda. (National American Women Suffrage Association)

Women’s full political, economic, and social equality.

Heterodoxy Club
1912; open to any women who pledged not to be “orthodox in her opinions”; brought together intellectuals, journalists, and labor organizers

Charles Darwin
English naturalists who wrote Origin of Species; thought higher forms of life evolved from lower forms through mutation and adaptation; came up with the theory of natural selection

Natural Selection
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits

Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion, 19th century of belief that evolutionary ideas theorized by Charles Darwin could be applied to society.

Science of human breeding.

Argued that mentally deficient people should be prevented from reproducing. They proposed sterilizing those deemed “unfit,”especially residents of state asylums for the insane or mentally disabled. In earlytwentieth century America, almost half of the states enacted eugenics laws.

A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be. the tendency to view or represent things as they really are.

the idea that human beings were not rational people that controlled their own destinies, but more victims to forces beyond their control (impulses and desires); promoted by authors Jack London and Stephen

Mark Twain
midwestern-born writer and lecturer who created a new style of american literature based on social realism and humor

Modernists took a historical and critical view of the Bible and believed they could accept Darwin’s theory of evolution without abandoning their religion.

American Protective Association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration. an antiforeign organization created in 1887; soon claimed a million members; urged voting against Roman Catholic candidates for office and sponsored the publication of slanderous materials against immigrants

Social Gospel
the religious doctrines preached by those who believed that the churches should directly address economic and social problems. A reform movement led by Protestant ministers who used religious doctrine to demand better housing and living conditions for the urban poor.

Popular at the turn of the twentieth century, it was closely linked to the settlement house movement

the movement by certain Protestants in the 1910s, based on the belief that the Bible was the fundamental truth and the center of Christian faith

Billy Sunday
A fundamentalist preacher and former baseball player who taught people about the evils of alcohol; a very powerful person who supported the Prohibition movement.

How and why did American sports evolve, and how did athletics soften or sharpen social divisions?
American sports evolved because males needed to defend their masculinity by building physical and mental discipline. The YMCA softened social divisions by mixing a variety of recreations that would suit both the working and middle classes but country clubs sharpened social divisions by focusing sports on the wealthy elite. Employers also supported the growth of sports because if benefitted workers by providing fresh air and expertise, it kept men out of saloons and promoted discipline and teamwork.

What changes in American society precipitated the rise of national parks and monuments?
The rise of sports lead Americans to see Victorian culture as stuffy and claustrophobic and revolted by heading out doors.

National Parks rose because of the railroad networks that reached the west. Camping became popular and Americans searched for unexploited land to renew themselves in nature. Encouraged by outdoorsmen, national and state gov’t set aside more public lands for preservation and recreation.

How did educational opportunities change after the Civil War, and for whom?
The attendance in schools increased by 8% when laws began to regulate attendance.

A high school diploma granted students the ability to go to college and practice higher level education. Charles Elliot pioneered liberal arts which developed each young man’s “individual reality and creative power”. Same-sex schools emerged but co-ed schools became more prominent and women became involved in the educational realm. With an education, women no longer relied on a man to support them.

Why did whites find Booker T. Washington’s ideas appealing?
Proposed that African Americans concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than legal and political ones.

In his famous speech know as the Atlanta Compromise, he urged fellow African Americans to postpone the fight for civil rights and instead concentrate on preparing themselves educationally and vocationally for full equality. It the government cannot legislate equality

How did women use widespread beliefs about their ‘special role’ to justify political activism, and for what goal?
Maternalism validated the woman’s “special role” as mothers. They became active in politics because the home and community could not thrive without women. Their goals were to curb alcohol abuse, and create a better society for humans as a whole with better working conditions and social privileges for women.

How was Social Darwinism used to justify industrialization and the rise of the industrialist?
The industrialists thought the only way to be successful was to make more money than everyone else to be at the top and “survive”. Justified the formation of business monopolies.

What effect did technology and scientific ideas have on literature and the arts?

How did America’s religious life change in this era?

In what ways did the Comstock Act reflect and contradict the realities of American life in the industrial era?

How did the ideas of scientists and social scientists reflect events they saw happening around them?

How did America’s religious life change in this era, and what prompted those changes?

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