IFSTA – Chapter 10

Topic: Psychology
Sample donated:
Last updated: May 18, 2019
Main structural member of a ladder supporting the rungs or rung blocks. p472
Bed Section
Lowest and widest section of an extension ladder; while the ladder is being raised or lowered. pg472
Butt (Heel)
Bottom end of the ladder; the end that is placed on the ground.


Butt Spurs
Metal plates, spikes, or cleats attached to the butt end of ground ladder beams to prevent slippage. pg 472
Fly Section
 Upper sections of extension or some combination ladders; the section that moves. pg 472
Rope or cable used for hoisting and lowering the fly section of an extension lader. pg 473
Curved metal devices installed near the tip end of roof ladders to secure the ladder to the highest point on a peaked roof of a building. pg 473
Main section (bed)
Bottom section of an extension ladder.

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pg 475

Pawls (dogs or ladder locks)
Devices attached to the inside of the beams on fly sections used to hold the fly section in place after it has been extended. pg 475
Cross members that provide the foothold  for climbing.
Extreme top of a ladder. pg 475
Pompier Ladder
Scaling ladder with a single beam and a large curved metal hook that can be put over windowsills for climbing. pg 475
Single Ladders (straight or single ladders)
Consist of only one section of a fixed length.


Roof Ladders
Single ladders equipped with folding hooks that provide a means of anchoring the ladder over the ridge of a pitched roof. pg 476
Folding ladders (Attic ladders)
They have hinged rungs allowing them to be folded so that one beam rests against the other. pg 476
Extension ladder
Consists of a base or bed section and one or more fly sections that travel in guides to permit length adjustment. pg 476
Combination ladders
Are designed so that they may be used as a self-supporting step-ladder (A-frame) and as a single or extension ladder. pg 478
Metal ladder characteristics

  • good conductor of heat, cold, electricity
  • easy to repair
  • can suddenly fail when exposed to heat or flame
  • wides range of sizes  pg 478

Wood ladder characteristics

  • highest cost of all ladders
  • heaviest per unit of length
  • retains strength when exposed to heat or flame
  • very durable    pg 478

Fiberglass ladder characteristics

  • generally a poor conductor of electricity
  • can suddenly crack and fail when overloaded
  • can burn when exposed to flame  pg 478

kepping ladders in a state of usefulness or readiness.  pg 478
means to either restore or replace that which is damaged or worn out.

pg 478

Portion of the exterior walls of a building that extends about the roof. A low wall at the edge of a roof. pg 484
How many rungs should be extended beyond the roof edge to provide footing and handholding for stepping on or off?
3-5 rungs    pg 484
Placement for Ventilation
Place the tip of the ladder about even with the tip of the window and to the windward (upward) side.     pg 484
Ladder placement for Rescue
Place the tip of the ladder just below the windowsill.pg 484
When multiple firefighters carry a ladder which firefighter gives the commands (491)?
Firefighter at the butt.

Name two ladder placement guidelines (491-493).
-ladder at least two points on different sides of the buildings-avoid windows or doors-take advantage of strong points of the building such as corners-avoid overhead obstructions-avoid fire
The desired climbing angle (494).
75 degrees
what is one proper method for checking the climbing angle of a ladder (495)?
stand on bottom rung and reach for the rung directly at shoulder level
Per OSHA ladders must be at least ___ feet away from energized electrical lines or equipment (496).
Wooden ladders are designed and intened to be used with the fly __. (497)
When performing a one-firefighter extension ladder raise, what is used to heel the ladder when it is brought to the vertical position (498)?
the building.

A four person ______ raise is used for larger extension ladders due to increased weight and length (500).
Heeling a ladder
One method for preventing a ladder from moving.A firefighter stands beneath the ladder with feet about shoulder width apart and grasps the ladder beams at eye level and pulls backward to press the ladder against the building.
Rope Hose Tool (503)
Piece of rope spliced to form a loop through the eye of a metal hook; used to secure hose to ladders or other objects.
Proper hand and foot movement while climbing ladders (503).
Coordingate hand and food movement so that the right hand and left foot are in contact with the ladder as you move the opposite hand and foot to the next rungs.
What needs to be in place before a firefighter can safely work with both hands off of a ladder (504).
Either a ladder belt or a leg lock.
Lowering an extraordinarily heavy victim down a ladder (507)
It may be necessary to use two ladders and two rescuers side by side.

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