IL33 is an immune molecule which was found toreverse the symptoms and cognitive decline of Alzheimer’s disease’s in mice in studypublished in the journal “proceedings of the national academy of Sciences(PNAS)”.A mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease called APP/PS1 was used to check theeffect of this injection. These mice displayed cognitive decline as well as theaccumulation of beta amyloid proteins in their brains both of which are symptomsof the disease. Studies on patients with Alzheimer’s disease showed that theyhave low levels of IL33. Although the role that this molecule plays in thedisease is not known, it is abundant particularly in the external nervoussystem. the IL33 injections into aged mice rapidly improved their memory andcognitive function in a week.
These aged mice mirrored results to that ofnormal mice of the same age. IL33 mobilizes microglia (immune cells in the brain)so that they surround amyloid plaques and reduce the size of the plaques byengulfing and digesting them. IL33 induces An enzyme called neprilysin which degradesthe soluble amyloid. The IL33 injection reduces the expression of proinflammatorygenes including IL-1?, IL-6, and NLRP3,in aged mice.
The IL33 injection inhibitsinflammation in the brain tissue which has been shown to increase plaque andtangle formation. From these results we can conclude that IL33 have the potentialto serve as gene therapy in Alzheimer’s disease.Mistakes on chromosome 21 called mutations causeAlzheimer’s disease. Many investments into the human genome project anddevelopment of low cost and rapid DNA sequencing and informatics tools have revolutionizedthe understanding of these genetic diseases and opened the door for theadvancement of genomic medicine. Two categories of these new technologies are :gene therapy and gene editing.
Gene therapy is where a new gene is transferred intocells of a defective gene, however gene is generally only suited for a limitedset of diseases caused by genetic mutations . Also gene therapy does not removeor modify defective DNA whereas Genome editingmodifies defective DNA at a particular locus. Genome editing has the potentialto deliver this technique to a broad range of genetic diseases; One of the newtechniques is called CRISPR.