In and other surface waters. Domestic and Industries

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Last updated: May 11, 2019

Inthe last few decades, the rapid industrial development has added enormous loadsof pollutants to our water resources such as rivers, lakes and streams. About70 percent of the Earth’s surface is the water that is the most preciousnatural resource that exists on earth.Water pollution might occur when a body of water is adverselyaffected due to the addition of huge amounts of pollutants to the water system.

Humans andother organisms produce wastes product which finally will enter rivers, lakes,oceans and other surface waters. Domesticand Industries waste products produce a variety of compounds might causesdecreasing of dissolved oxygen which is important to support aquatic life. Themajor concern nowadays is the problems that related to the water pollution, especially indeveloping countries because around 3.2 million children die every year becauseof unsafe drinking water and also poor sanitation (Amir, 2016). The pollutionissues are become serious concern especially when the pollutions are involveswith the released of chemicals into our environment and disrupt the balanceecosystem, threatening human health and polluting the water resources. Thus, steroidhormone is one of the chemicals that released continuously by human and animalinto the environment and causing many bad effect to the ecosystem ( Lintelmann et al., 2003; Drewes and Shore, 2001; Shore andShemesh, 2003).

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Endocrinedisruptive compounds (ECDs) are a group of chemical that have the higher potential to the carcinogenic threats to the humanpopulation and also  their ability tointerfere with hormonal system (Omar etal., 2016).  The sources of the ECDs  are from the industrial chemicals andhousehold products that such as synthetic hormones, polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pharmaceuticals, and pesticides.

These ECDs arefound in a high variety of products that are used in our daily life such asdetergent, personal care products and pharmaceutical.  Therefore, without realizing it humans arekeep discharges these exogenous pollutants every day into our environment. Theseproducts that contain ECDs will be flow out into drain, wastewater treatmentplant and finally back into our water resource which is river and causesthreats to the safety of the aquatic and human environment.

  The main causeof concern with the EDCs is their high tendency to accumulate in human and alsoaquatic life that will cause the feminization and also infertility problems. Atcertain doses the EDCs can interfere with the endocrine system by mimicking andblocking the natural hormone (Komesli et al., 2015).

Thus, the receptor are blocked and cannot be activated, even thenatural hormone are present. EDCs are the chemical that are suspected to berelated with altered of the reproduction function of female and also male (WHO,2017). The effect from these problems, there are many cases of infertilityfaced by couples especially in Sabah. Due to this problem, high number of fertilityservices, fertility specialist Clinic and Fertility and Reproductive ResearchCentre are found in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.

Based on the previous studied, the studyabout ECDs are still lack of information because of their trace amountdetection is still low. 

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