Type: Descriptive Essays
Sample donated: Betty Alvarez
Last updated: December 20, 2019
In the era of constantly increasing competition inall work sectors, it is essential to have the highest graded employees with allround excellence. For all around excellence, it is not just the technical knowledgethat counts, it is also about various behaviours and skills. Organizations arealways in need of workforce high on commitment, responsibility and sincerity.
This holds a lot more importance when it comes to private sector employment owingto the current economic conditions and hence job insecurities. Not just the capital outcome but thebehaviours and soft skills of an employee play a major role in helping themretain their job profiles or seeking appraisals. The development of these behaviour and skills in anemployee are considered to be learnt ones, and dynamic in nature.
It isbelieved that with increasing work experience, interest for the job profile,workplace environment and culture, these behaviours are learnt and developed. Commitment has been considered as a fundamentaltrait for successful individuals and even organizations ever since.Organizational commitment according to Luthans (1999) has been defined as anemployee’s loyalty to the organization, willingness to effort on behalf of theorganization, associated with the acceptance of the organization’s goals andvalues and desire to maintain membership. It consists of three different constructsnamely: affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment.Organizational commitment has been an area ofinterest for a lot of management researchers in the last few decades.
From alot of studies, it can be gathered that organizational commitment is one of themost influential predictors of organizational citizenship behaviour. Organizational citizenship behaviour unlikeorganizational commitment, is technically an optional attitude or behaviourthat was not conventionally overtly recognized by organizations. With changingwork environment and productivity requirements, managers have started torecognize OCB in the formal reward system as it is said to improveeffectiveness and output. OCB has been described as the behaviour of anindividual that is voluntary and optional, directly or explicitly is notrecognized by the formal reward system, and overall improves the organizationalfunction. There are five basic dimensions to citizenship behaviour: conscientiousness,altruism, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue.
(Organ, 1988 and 1994) With increasing work on employee welfare anddevelopment, studying various aspects of employment behaviour has beentrending. According to existing research studies, the constructs of jobinvolvement, job satisfaction, commitment etc. have been widely explored inrelation to productivity, output, employee turnover and efficiency. Management researchershave widely explored the relationship between organizational commitment, jobinvolvement and organizational citizenship behaviour. The effect of affectiveorganizational commitment on citizenship behaviour have also been researchedupon. The idea behind the present study is to explore the influences of all thethree types of organizational commitments i.e. affective, continuance andnormative on organizational citizenship behaviour and the gender differences ifany, specifically in the Indian context as there is limited published researchwork in that area.
Also, the present research work can prove to be helpful inemployee development in all kind of organizations. Research Problem Statement:Although there have been many researches on theconstructs of organizational commitment and organizational citizenshipbehaviour, along with job involvement, job satisfaction, efficiency andproductivity, there is a lack of data on how commitment influences citizenshipbehaviour. Also, there are limited published researches on the same in theIndian context. There is no available data that explains the gender differencesin commitment and citizenship behaviour. The idea behind the present study isto understand how organizational commitment influences organizationalcitizenship behaviour in the Indian context and to understand if there are anydifferences based on gender. Rationale:Theoretically and empirically, organizationalcommitment has been found to be a predictor of citizenship behaviour. It hasbeen found that affective commitment is the most important part of commitmentto predict citizenship behaviour.
It has been seen that employees with highemotional commitment, aspects of friendships and work ethics tend to be moreproductive, and even sacrifice their own self for goal attainment. On the contrary,of finances i.e.
continuance commitment and obligatory retainment i.e.normative commitment and their effect on citizenship behaviour has not beenstudied in depth. To understand these aspects of commitment such as affect, itis essential that the concepts are studied on employees with a reasonably goodamount of work experience. Financial aspects and obligation to continue with anorganization can also be important factors affecting citizenship behaviour asafter a certain point in life, people look for financial stability to fulfil theirneeds with easy. Also, there can be differences among males and females as tohow commitment influences citizenship behaviour in them. The present studyshall focus on all these and add to the existing research.
REVIEW OF LITERATUREOrganizational behaviour is the study of beliefs,attitudes and behaviours displayed by individuals at a work place underdifferent circumstances and situations. The core goal of each organization isto attain optimum productivity and maintain employee welfare. For the same, organizational commitment is anecessity as that is the trait one requires to get the work done. Organisationalcommitment is an employee’s loyalty to the organization, willingness to exerteffort on behalf of the organization, associated with acceptance oforganization’s goals and values and desire to maintain membership. (Organ,1988)A three-component model of organizational commitmentwas devised by Meyer and Allen (1991), which proposed that there are threetypes of commitments which correspond to different psychological states or mindsets. The three components are:Affective Commitment: It is the desire component ofcommitment where in employee’s positive emotional attachment to theorganization comes in to play. The employee takes up responsibility and fulfil goalsbecause he/she desires to out of their own will and to remain a part of theorganization.Continuance Commitment: The component incorporatesthe need aspect on the part of an employee or the gains versus losses of beingassociated to an organization.
Here, there is a willingness to remain in anorganization because of the investment that the employee has with non-transferableinvestment. Normative Commitment: Here, individuals remain orcommit to an organization out of a sense of obligation towards theorganization. Employees stay with organizations because he/she ought to due toa moral obligation or to repay the debt.More recently, scholars added two more components tothe three-component model, making it a five-component model of organizationcommitment. The new components are habitual commitment i.e. individuals stay inan organizations because they get used the routine, process and cognitiveschemas associated with a job can make people develop a latent commitment tothe job, and forced commitment i.
e. an employee gets bound to work in anorganisation due to various financial, psycho-social and other personalreasons. Organizational citizenship behaviour according toOrgan (1997) is described as the behaviour of an individual that is voluntaryand optional, that is not directly or explicitly not recognized by the formalreward system, and overall improves the organization function. Oregon (1997)explained organizational citizenship as a function that supports the social andpsychological environment of organization where the tasks and duties areperformed, is supported.
The concept of citizenship was further classified intofive dimensions: altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civicvirtue. Scholars have empirically put forward thatcommitment to organizations effect the degree to which an employee exhibitscitizenship behaviour. In the recent most research study by Leyla Khaleyand Sadeyali Naji (2016) in Iran, aimed at understanding the relationshipbetween the components of organizational commitment and organizationalcitizenship behaviour in nursing staff, was conducted in the form of a surveyon 130 nurses based on their availability. From this descriptive-correlationalresearch, it was found that there was no significant relationship between theaffective and normative components of commitment with citizenship behaviour. Another similar study in Iran by Kaveh Hasani et alin 2013, in the educational sector was conducted, aimed at finding the relationshipbetween organization citizenship behaviour and organizational commitment usingthe descriptive-correlative method on a sample of 1225 employees. The resultsshowed a significant relationship between OCB and organizational commitmentalong with all the three components separately.
This was supported by argumentslike, teachers and professors tend to develop an emotional connect with theirdiscipline and students leading them to exhibit citizenship behaviours such asaltruism and conscientiousness. In a study conducted at the Islamic Azad Universityby Moslem Salehi in 2011, the relationship between job satisfaction, job burnoutand organizational commitment on OCB was explored on a sample of 341participants chosen using stratified sampling method. Using Pearson’s correlationcoefficient and multiple regression, it was found that job satisfaction andorganisational commitment had a positive effect on OCB whereas, job burnout hada negative effect. These results were supported by emotional attachment, senseof responsibility and loyalty to work. Another study was conducted in Aston University,Birmingham by Thaneswor Gautam et al in 2005 to study the structure of OBC andits relation to organizational commitment in Nepal. For the sample, a sample of450 participants was chose from different Nepalese organizations and standardizedquestionnaires were administered. The results revealed that there was apositive relationship between affective and normative commitment and OCB andthat continuance commitment was negatively related to OCB.
The study quotes thelimitation of socio-cultural context wherein loyalty to work and work place ishighly valued and practiced. There have been studies in the past that contradictthese findings. In a study conducted by Larry Williams and Stella Anderson in1991, aimed at understanding job satisfaction and organizational commitment aspredictors of OCB, it was found that variables of organizational commitmentwere not significant predictors of OCB but job satisfaction was. With the existing researches, it is evident thatorganizational commitment has influence on OCB. Since, there are mixed resultsand most of the researches have focused more on the affective commitmentaspect, the present study will also try to find out the influence of normativeand continuance commitment on OCB.
Along with this, the present study will alsoaim at explore the gender differences in the exhibition of commitment and citizenship behaviour whichlacks in the existing researches. Also, there is limited or no published researchthat has been carried out specifically in the Indian context which shall betaken care of in the present study.With changing work environment and conditions, thecharacteristics required out of an employee are also constantly evolving.Thought the technical knowledge and formal education is the primitive need,certain behavioural traits are also essential for maintaining a productive environment,welfare and output. Commitment and citizenship behaviour are two things thatmake up a workplace beyond just the monetary gains and capital output.
It isthe employees that make up an organization and way they relate to the organizationand work to attain goals beyond monetary gains. These behaviours develop withthe years of being associated to an organization and understanding theorganizational norms. According to Organ and Ryan (1995), commitment accountsas an antecedent to OCB quoting that employees attached to an organization willhave greater motivation or desire to make a meaningful contribution to theorganization. This emotional attachment develops over a prolonged period ofassociation and consequently a sense of commitment to the organization isdeveloped after spending a reasonable time with the organization. With thesense of attachment, loyalty and hence commitment, employees tend to do littlethings for the organization and co-workers that they are not formally requiredto do, to help them, creating an effective work environment.
The present study will focus on individuals with areasonable amount of work experience to understand if organizational commitmentinfluences organizational citizenship behaviour as, with increasing age andexperience, the way commitment to the workplace is perceived evolves. On thecontrary for freshers or contractual employees, the amount of time they investwith the organization or their experience with the organization if not enoughto develop an attachment to the organization. This study can prove to be helpful for managers todevelop a better understanding of employee behaviours and give an insight onwhat is required out of the organization and its employees for betterproductivity. Research question:Is there an influence of organizational commitmenton organization citizenship behaviour?Aim:To study the influence of organizational commitmenton organizational citizenship behaviour.Specific Objectives:To study the influence of organizational commitmenton organizational citizenship behaviour.To study the gender difference in the level ofaffective commitment among young working adults.
To study the gender difference in the level ofcontinuance commitment among young working adults.To study the gender difference in the level ofnormative commitment among young working adults.To study the gender differences in organizationcitizenship behaviour among young working adults.To study the gender differences in the influence ofthree different dimensions of organizational commitment as a whole onorganization citizenship behaviour among young working adults.Hypotheses:There is a significant influence of organizationalcommitment on organizational citizenship behaviour.There is a significant level of gender difference inthe level of affective commitment among young working adults.
There is a significant level of gender difference inthe level of continuance commitment among young working adults.There is a significant level of gender difference inthe level of normative commitment among young working adults.There is a significant level of gender differencesin organization citizenship behaviour among young working adults.
There is a significant level of gender differencesin the influence of three different dimensions of organizational commitment asa whole on organization citizenship behaviour among young working adults. METHODOLOGYResearch Design:Non-experimental correlational research designVariables: Independent variable- Organizational commitmentDependent variable- Organization citizenshipbehaviourOperational Definitions:Organizational commitment- It is an employees’feeling or attitude towards the organization. It is the degree to which he/sheexhibits loyalty, sincerity and effort in their job role to attain the requiredtargets.Affective commitment- It is the degree to which anemployee shows emotional attachment and involvement with the organization andits goals.Continuance commitment- It is the willingness of anemployee to continue with an organization due to the financial provisions bythe organization and the non-transferable investments made by the employee.Normative commitment- This type of commitment comesinto play when an employee is obligated work in the same organization due tovarious psycho-social, financial and personal reasons.
Organizational citizenship behaviour- It is a discretionarybehaviour, not formally recognized or is not a pre-requisite for employment buttends to promote effective functioning in organizations.