In1974 Stogdill argue that the concept of Leadership lacks a generally altruisticdefinition “there are almost as many different definitions of leadership asthere are persons who have attempted to define the concept” (Stogdill,1974),also, Bennis has stated overtime that during the last century, there werenothing less than six hundred and fifty “650” definitions on the concept ofleadership, however, each of these definitions depends on the mindset of aresearcher and also the situation that such a researcher wants the definitionfor (Bennis & Townsend, 1995).Additionally,McCleskey in 2014 & Citing Bass in 2008, has adduced further that thesearch for a single definition on the topic, would amount to vain effortsbecause it wouldn’t be a very objective one (McCleskey,2014; Citing Bass,2008).However, this doesnot however mean that there should not be a definition for the leadership.
1 Effective leadership:2.1.1 what is the leadershipAccording to kotter, Leadership includes defining goalsthat determines best, what interests or implementations are apt for aparticular organization (Kotter, 1998). and according to Gary Yukl the leadership is “the process of influencingothers to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it,and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplishshared objectives” (Yukl, 2006).
And Peter Northouse has defined the leadershipas “a process whereby an individual influence a group of individuals to achievea common goal.” (Northouse,2007). 1.
1.2 What is the effective leadershipProfessor Dave Ulrich “the professor of business at the Ross Schoolof Business, University of Michigan” has developed a frameworkbased on his researches to conclude and define the rules and goals to makegreat leaders. These rules are tagged, “The Five Rules of Leadership.”(Dava,2009).The five rules of effective leadership: 1- Plan for the future “Shape the future”: this follows the question that strategists askthemselves. It is the, “where are we going” question.
When strategists ask thisquestion, it helps them to itemize their goals and how best to utilize theirresources in the achievement of such a goal.True leaders have a foresight of where they are leadingtheir people. The most of what they do while leading is to direct the people ororganization to a ready predicted end.2- The Rain Maker “Make thingshappen”: a true leader is one that makes things happen. In fact,if an organization has a passive leader, such a leader loses the devotion ofhis work force. The rain maker ideology follows the executor’s strategy followsthe whole idea of translating strategy into actions that eventually put theorganization into the desired place it wants to be.
A true leader must be a pace setter, and mostimportantly, a goal getter.3- Resourceful use of talents “Engage today’s talent”: Leaders make use of what they have to get what theywant. They imbibe in their team, the act of loyalty and being united in otherto achieve the common goal.
Leaders highlight the goal, they highlight theresources to be used for that purpose and they make use of those resources forthe purpose of achieving the goal.4- SustainableDevelopment “Build the next generation”: trueleaders think about how best they can achieve their goals in other to serve theneed of the generation of the moment, and also the generation unborn.They think about long term goals and how best to achieve them. They arenot limited by short term goals.5- Consistency “Invest in yourself”: great leaders areconsistent. They are consistent in the art of learn and developing such skillsthat they have imbibed over the years. They are dynamic enough to implementterms that works for the best organizational outcomes.
Leaders have the ability to be self-sufficient becausethey have developed themselves enough to be able to lead their followers. Theyare also people who have won the trust and legitimacy of their followers.Regardless of the personal nature of a leader, he is always gifted in at leastfour of the five rules, thereby making him a great leader.A true leader is one who learns to work on His/herweaknesses in order to improve himself/herself and that could be in strategy, implementation,talent management etc.Leaders must be able to grow. The higher up theorganization that the leader rises, the more he or she needs to developexcellence in more than one of the four domains.2.
2 Thecomparison between men and women at senior positionsMany and different research studies have analyzed thestyles of both male and female leaders since time immemorial, and they havediscerned that there exists certainly, a difference in their leading styles. Ithas also been discerned that although their differences are evident, they existin an infinitesimal amount (Eagly, 2013).One major distinction is that female leaders areconsidered to be more human and democratic in their style of leadership, andthis is in opposition of their male counterparts who are consider to most timesadopt the command and control style of leadership.
It has overtime been adducedthat women leaders are more participative in their style of leadership than men(Eagly, 2013).Another difference is that women tend to use the toolof motivation and reward-based incentives to make their workers more loyal tothe organizational goal, and on the other hand, men leaders prefer to make useof stricter measures and other skeptically effective leadership styles tocontrol their organization (Antonakis, Avolio & Siva-subramaniam, 2003). On the other hand, Kanter argues that organizationalroles override gender roles when it comes to management or leadershippositions. He brings forward that irrespective of the gender in a same leadershiprole, theoretically do not differ much in their leadership approaches, becauseleaders at these roles “are presumably more concerned about managingeffectively than about representing sex-differentiated features of societalgender roles” (Kanter, 1977). Kanter went further to opine that, managers inspite of their genders either of the leaders behave merely less stereotypicwhen they occupy the same leadership position because they are confining to theguidelines about the conduct of behavior of the given managerial role ratherthan leading according to their gender stereotype. According to Kanter, this isbecause apparent sex differences in behavior is not a product of genderdifferences, but is rather because of differing structural positions; becausewomen are often in positions of less control, and they behave in ways thatreflect that they are inadequate. Thus, men and women in equivalent positionsof power behave similarly, suggesting no gender differences in leadershipstyles. Accordingto Powell, there are no core differences in leadership styles.
Whether men orwomen, the means of carrying out tasks are similar. The differences betweenthem simply exist as some sort of stereotype against women, additionally heargues that overall, leadership differences between men and women areinsignificant because they are cancelled out when looking at studies as a wholeas both genders use equal amounts of task-oriented and relationship-orientedbehaviors. (Powell, 1990)Also, according toHarris, “all cultures make social distinctions between men and women and placeimportance of identity in social hierarchy” (Harris, 1991). This includes manydifferent perspectives from hostile differentiation “women are inferior andincompetent” to benevolent differentiation “women are nurturing and possessmoral purity”.(Eagly & Mladinic, 1994).
additionally, there is a fact that”senior women are surrounded mostly by male colleagues, places women at furtherrisk of discrimination” (Broughton & Miller, 2009). In a nutshell,some researchers have argued that there are no major distinctions between theleadership styles amongst men and women. They believe majorly that many of thedistinctions that people see in the style of leadership in men and women aresimply situational, and the effectiveness of such leadership style isconditional to various internal and external environments of their groups(Riggio, 2008).However, Practically,there are some cultural, eductional and social distinctions between men andwomen in some countries and it is very obvious in some countries such asKingdom of Saudi Arabia and Sudan.Regarding the soft andhard power, Women are more emotional and democratic and follow themotivation way in their leadership more than men, while men considered to dependon command and control style of leadership in addition to the strict evaluationand measurement.2 A female business leaderand a female political leader I have chosen twoeffective leaders who has a great positive contribution on their nations and people,Angela Merkel & Shikha Hasina who has been named as “the mother of humanity” by the British media2.
1 Female Political LeaderAccording to Jon Henlyarticle in the guardian newspaper in 2013, Angela Merkel is one of the mostformidable EU leaders that have survived the economic crisis. Little wonder sheis tagged the second most powerful woman in the world. As it stands now, she isset out to become Europe longest serving female head of government. Research has it that she is not an outspoken person,and she takes a whole lot of time to make decisions, here personality asmentioned below along with the five rules of effective leaders are matching.
o Being strategicand trying to know what the future holds for her country. As a child, shealways wanted to know what her Christmas presents were, before the special day,and this obviously grew with her as she now plans ahead for her country, in themost scientific way.o Being determinedand being able to weigh the risks and acting upon the decision with minimal risk(Risk avoidance person). Merkel, during her school days weighs her optionsbefore deciding, and this explains why she takes time before she implements herdecisions.
o Learn tounderstand your supporters and what they want, and learn to understand the vantagepoint of the opposing side. This is not so you can use such vantage pointagainst the opposing side, but so that you can know how best to avoid a war.o well organized andworking according a plan and doesn’t work based on what needs to be done. Followthe utilitarian goal instead. If a situation amounts to picking guns andfighting a war, use the tool of cowardice to make friends with your enemies. o Deal with thepriorities in private, and avoid disclosing them until when you have fullyimplemented them.
When there is an avenue in public to discuss matters thatrelate to your utmost priorities, bother more on talking about trivial issues,while you set out the major work in your personal abode.From the other hand, practically she has a greatachievement in her country which are consistent with the leadership rules andprove it Merkel is a very distinct leader. She served as achancellor in Germany in the year 2005, and go the honor ahead of some othershort lists of finalists which include Donald Trump, and many others.
Although politics and business form two differentpaths that rarely meet, Merkel’s leadership helps entrepreneurs and many othermajor business players to learn a work load of lessons from the larger stage ofglobal government Times newspaper has overtime made a summary of some ofher leadership qualities which includes the fact that she has never been afraidto be a lone voice. This is further buttressed in a life history as more of aminority person.It also records that Merkel has always been a masterat ruling from behind, and this characteristic feature of her, it alluded to asbeen one of those things that she learned from Nelson Mandela.
She particularlybelieves that leading from behind is a genre of purpose based leadership.In the global setup, her values have helped over theyears to redeem Germany’s reputation. This is further buttressed in her helpinghands towards countries like Ukraine, Greek, Paris amongst many others.Times also concludes that it is only when people don’twant to follow that a leader undergoes the true test of leadership. This isbuttressed in Merkel as a leadership brand. Little wonder why Angela Merkel wonTimes person of the year. 2.2 Female Business Leader I have chosen Marry Barre the CEO of general motorssince 2014, as the second leader in business, as she has shown a greatCapabilities to be one of the most effective leaders in the world thanks to hergreat achievements with GM, here I am going to summarize some of her leadershiptraits and advantages.
o Being strategicand working through a plan is very obvious since She has a plan to move towards100% electrical cars in order to adapt to the new technologies and worlddirection to maintain the green environment and decrease the source ofpollution, especially after the announcement that UK and France plan to ban Gadand diesel cars in the near future.o Weighting thecoming risks of keep producing the gas and diesel cars led and the need totransform the technologies and invest in Electrical cars, reflecting one of theimportant leadership ruleo General motorsprofit margin with rose 9.2% during 2016 because she is focused on improvingthe profitability while working on improving the new electrical carstechnologies, which reflects also her well organized and plan orientedmentality, in addition to focusing on the profitabilityas a priority to improve their financial position in the market.Finally, from my personal prospective, both AngelaMerkel and Marry Barra are very successful leaders who has a clear strategy andworking on two pillars, the first one is to lead their place to improve theircurrent situation and position among all competitors and facing the challengeswith a stable movement. The second pillar is thinking of the future and both ofworking on developing their places as mentioned above.Additionally, both of them are making the differenceand they took over in critical situations and the future was almost ambiguousfor Germany and General Motors and they managed to lead their people to be in avery good position. 3 Leadership Vs. Management 4.
1 What Bennis (1989) stated: Management is “Doing things right”and the transition to Leadership is “Doing the right things”. Is there a potential hybrid style? Bennis & Nanus sumrizedthe differences between managers and leaders in their famous quoted phrase:”Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do theright thing” (Bennis & Nanus,1985 P. 221). From my prospective Leadershipand management are different in the wise,where managers are people that love todo the right things in other words to achieve their goals. On the other hand,leaders or perhaps, good leaders are those who do the right things inherently. Table1 show the differences between leaders and managers, and as per Rowe who claimthat leaders and managers are different, and this is innate in theirphilosophy. Managers believe that the organization and environment determinetheir decisions.
In other words,managers are deterministic in their belief system. Leaders believe that thechoices they make will affect their organizations and that their organizationswill affect or shape the industries or environments in which they operate. (Rowe,2001)Inanother vein, the belief systems of leaders are more aligned with their freewill. Leaders on the other hand, believe that the choices they make wouldaffect their organization, as their organization determines the industries andthe environment in which they operate. And firms that have strong managementwith a weak leadership, become stereotypic and less willing to be innovative. whileorganizations with a strong leadership on the other hand can make changesbecause they are more dynamic, but when they have a weak management, suchchange is misdirected and meaningless so both leadership and management arenecessary.Theconclusion is that, every organization needs acceptable authority to lead, butthere is no guarantee as to the effectiveness of diverse leaders. In today’sorganizations, we need more active organizational players who focus more on thegrowth of the entire system and see to it that there is a functional workenvironment, From my point of viewthe leader can act as a manager but manger cant act or replace the leader, and Leadershipis a two-way path, it is both similar to, and also different from management.
Leadership and management involve making decisions and influencing lives. Theyalso both agree with the notion of achieving goals. 4.2 Are effective leadersborn or made? Leadership involves settings goals that determines best,what interests or implementations are apt for a particular organization. Andthey are a good learner, where they learn things from almost all thatthey are doing/participating in, as they are always willing to learn. On the otherside, the most effective leaders teach people to be loyal and this is becausethey are loyal and honest, and they are able to make a big move and extensive differencesfor/with their followers.
They can easily overcome stress and inspire their team.I am of the view that leaders can be born, and can be made.There are people who are leaders from birth, and this explains why some peoplehave got the charisma, and others don’t. I am observant of this, I have mentionedthe five main traits of leadership.