Type: Evaluation Essays
Sample donated: Stacey Little
Last updated: September 21, 2019
In the early 1970s, the condylar knee wascreated in the United States and overseas. The purpose of replacing thetibiofemoral condylar surfaces with cemented fixation, along with preservationof the cruciate ligaments, was created and refined.
After many years and manypeople initially attribute knee soreness or discomfort to lack of exercise orgetting older. Many do not take their early knee arthritis symptoms as “nobig deal” until they get worse and start to interrupt one’s ability to enjoy and doeveryday activities. Bone friction and inflammation in the knee jointmakes the knee stiff and less adjustable. Knee range of motion can become veryhard on a patient life.
A patient with common to advanced knee osteoarthritismay find it is difficult to make their knee straight. Some people may onlyexperience stiffness in the knee in the morning. To correct severe kneemalformation, the condylar knee with posterior cruciate-sacrificing design wasinitiate, also in the early 1970s. By 1974, rearrangement the patellofemoraljoint or sacrificing the cruciate ligaments had become standard practice. Thereafter,condylar knee designs were upgraded to include better and safer fixation, withuse of universal instrumentation. Today, over 19 companies in the United Statescirculate total knee implants of three different types: cruciate-preserving,cruciate-substituting, and TC-III (Garret Hyman, 2011).
Future developmentsalready in place, such as navigation-guided surgery, and wear-resistant bearingsurfaces with better fixation, promise a consistent evolution for the totalknee replacement (Lenox Hill Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery). Identificationof the best method for post-operative pain control after total knee replacementis a main objective in patient care.SymptomsAccording to(Garrett Hyman) Knee pain and stiffness are the most frequent signs of kneeosteoarthritis.
These symptoms can to progress gradually over, while standing or aftersitting for a long period. Stiffness may or may not be accompanied by swelling.Inactive lifestyle makes it worse, gaining weight is also a major problem. Kneescan become stiff after sleeping, walking or sitting for a long period of time.People with knee osteoarthritis often find stiffness and pain are mostnoticeable when they try to get out of bed in the morning or out of a chairafter a long period of sitting. In most but not all cases, the symptoms of kneeosteoarthritis come and go, becoming worse and more regular over months oryears. Knee osteoarthritis pain maybe intense after high intensity activities,such as jogging or tennis, or simple weight-bearing activities that add weightto the knee joint, such as squatting or stair climbing. While adults ofany age may develop knee osteoarthritis, the currency of symptomatic knee osteoarthritisincreases very fast starting at the age of 45 and continues to increasethereafter.
The prevalence increases with age because with age the knee jointsexperience wear and tear and cartilage thins and becomes less flexible, makingit more prone to osteoarthritis. The degeneration of the joints that ischaracteristic of osteoarthritis is why the condition is also called”degenerative joint disease”. Knee swelling is also a major problem, whengetting older the cartilage wears off and sometimes the femur and the tibia canrub together. Two years ago, when my mother started to have those unbearable painshe used to cry like a baby, she thought she was going to die. Many patientsincluding my mother usually have the felling of the knee popping or crunchinglike eating a bag of chips. Feeling the knee popping or crunching (Garret, 2011)explains that, those are signs that the cartilage is no more there, it is onlybone rubbing into each other.DiagnosisPhysicians diagnose osteoarthritis using a combinationof medical history, evaluation of symptoms, and various imaging scans that canhelp assess the progression of the disease. They may also do a series ofphysical evaluations to examine the alignment of the hips or knees and todetermine the extent of joint immobility.
My Mother used to go to therapy and Iwas always saying why would the physicians do therapies when knowing thepatient is in pain. I was wrong, because (Grant, 2010) said that physicaltherapy is the first method used before surgery to strengthen the muscles andmake walking, sitting, and bending more easy. Knee arthritis can also bediagnose using X-Rays and MRI. An X-ray is used to provide a picture ofpotential joint damage, but is not the most reliable tool.
Most patients overthe age of 60 display joint degeneration associated with osteoarthritis, butonly a third or this population report actual symptoms. For this reason, anX-ray is usually used to confirm a suspected diagnosis made through a physical examinationand medical history (Grant Cooper, 2010). Magneticresonance imaging techniques can be used to provide a more accurate picture ofdamage to the joint and remaining cartilage. Patentsdiagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis will be referred to a rheumatologist – aspecialist with specific training and skills to diagnose and treat RA. In itsearly stages, RA may resemble other forms of inflammatory arthritis. No singletest can confirm RA.
To make a proper diagnosis, the rheumatologist will askquestions about personal and family medical history, perform a physical examand order diagnostic tests. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an antibody found inabout 80 percent of people with RA. Because RF can occur in other inflammatorydiseases, it’s not a sure sign of having RA. But a different antibody –anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) – occurs primarily in patientswith RA.
That makes a positive anti-CCP test a stronger clue to RA. Butanti-CCP antibodies are found in only 60 to 70 percent of people with RA andcan exist even before symptoms start (Arthritis Foundation).Treatment Accordingto grant cooper Drug therapy is used to manage