In including the lifelong relationship between parent and

Topics: EnvironmentPollution


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Last updated: August 18, 2019

 In short, theparents’ expectations regarding their children’s academic achievement had been influencedwith subsequent achievement (Davis-Kean, 2005). Parenting had importantlong-term outcome for the development of characteristic adaptations including thelifelong relationship between parent and child. Many other aspects of theenvironment were also significantly influenced on characteristic adaptationsincluding peers, the media, educational systems and more (Miller & Votruba-Drzal, 2013).  In addition,urban-rural environment result in significant differences in early academicskills.

Furthermore, cognitive stimulation in the home, parenting quality, andparental childrearing beliefs and academic expectations appeared to beimportant predictors of early achievement. Cognitive stimulation in the home,which includes the provision of educational interactions, activities andmaterials enhances language, proficiency, and numeracy skills (Son &Morrison, 2010). Similarly, high quality parenting in early childhood, whichwas characterized by high levels of responsiveness, warmth and consistencypromotes early cognitive and academic development (Lugo-Gil &Tamis-LeMonda, 2008).  In fact, childrenliving in more urban areas were closer to a variety of enriching activities,the frequency in which urban and suburban children were exposed withstimulating experiences may be greater, thereby raising the quality of theirearly learning environments. Lastly, parents’ beliefs and expectationsregarding childrearing and education were contributed to early academic skills.

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(Glick et al., 2009).  Moreover, it mightbe harder for rural parents to furnish children with enriching experience andconnections as scattering of people, shortage of services, and recent reductionof human capital may leave rural families without access to imperative assetsand social capital. However, there were also positive aspects of ruralresidence which were increased home-ownership and accessibility of nature(Wells & Evans, 2003). On the other hand, large cities often known with alack of green spaces, crime, overcrowding, pollution, which could bedisadvantages for parenting and early development even though resourceaccessibility were not problematic (Evans, 2006). These developmental contextsover those urban–rural continuum brought about variety in the improvement onskills.  Despite theimportance of understanding the influence of factors on child or humandevelopment in general, few studies had considered how urbanity shapes thedevelopment of early academic skills.

For instance, rural areas were populatedoutside main human resources and often had limited access to development ofessential resources like health care, libraries, and child care (Vernon-Feaganset al., 2008). Furthermore, over the last few decades, most of young generationhad migrated to urban and suburban areas as high-quality jobs in ruralcommunities had been reduced (Vernon-Feagans et al., 2008).   Areaof upbringing provided unique settings for skills development. Early successmay be because of variations in access to sources and childrearing norms andpractices in urban, suburban, and rural areas. Urban, suburban, and ruralregions provided precise settings for child development. Urban–rural continuum differsin financial status, resources accessibility, and collective human, social, andcultural capital, all of which had huge and imperative impact for human (Vernon-Feaganset al.

, 2008). A few studies explained that urbanity linked to the developmentof early educational capabilities, with rural children lagging behind theirurban peers in kindergarten success (Lee & Burkham, 2002).  Hereditaryfactors and inborn play significant role in the process of skills development,however, acquired and environmental seem to be equally important. Theenvironment also had a direct impact to personality traits, becausecharacteristic adaptations were always involved in their expression (McCrae et al., 2000).

The significant roleamong environmental factors played the conscious impacts. At this point, thedevelopment of skills can be partly or totally controlled in the unfavourableconditions was seems extremely important to be emphasized. If the child doesnot receive a proper support, encouragement and guidance some of the skills canin such a situation not be disclosed or not be developed. The more suchexposure and stimulation involves the individual, the more intensively skillsdevelop (Petrykowski et al.,2014).

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