In the study ofelectrochemical biosensor, a type of biological recognition system will help intransfer information from the biochemical sample which is an analyte, into an outputsignal with a type of sensitivity. The aim of the recognition process is to runthe sensor in a shape of high selectivity state to measure the analyte. Biosensorsare selective corresponding to an analyte.
Design of certain biosensors arebased on a “class-specific” type as usually they are using specific biologicalcompound (Thevenot, et al., 2001). Atypical electrochemical biosensor working principles are applied as follows:a) bioreceptors specifically bind to thespecific analyte,b) a specific biological response occursand induces a signal or reading,c) the signal will be picked by atransducer and later, transformed to an electronic signal,d) the electronic signal will be enlargedby a detector circuit using the setting reference provided. The signal will sendto a software for processing,e) the provided computer software will transform thesignal into to a physical parameter or quantitative reading to help in elaboratingthe process that is being studied.Biosensors are highly selective because of thepresence of the immobilized, biological recognition system that wouldspecifically bind and interact with the target species in the sample on theworking electrode due to the specific binding affinity.
(Grieshaber, et al., 2008). Inthe early stage, Leland C. Clark had presented the application with principleof the first enzyme electrode, by immobilizing the glucose oxidase which actsas the biological recognition receptor on the surface of the electrode. This isfeatured at the New York Academy of Sciences Symposium in 1962. This devicesystem was used to detect the amount of glucose in the blood samples taken fromdiabetics’ patients (Clark Jr.
& Lyons, 1962) (Setford & Newman, 2005).They are also frequently being targeted as they are easily fabricated, portabledevices and their simplicity structure which contributes to the widely usage ofthis type of biosensor (Scampicchio, et al., 2010) (Evtugyn, 2014).