In this assignment I will bediscussing how qualitative research and quantitative research can be used toinform occupational therapy practice………….. I will then move onto………………….. Roger(1982) said that research in occupational therapy is considered as a processfor mending interventions and placement, enhancing the scientific reality ofpractice and creating occupational therapy as a practice.
One apparent approachto combining research and practice is to recall the research findings and fitthem promptly to the practice issue. Evidence based practice is known as a framework ofdecision making that allows professionals to extract information fromqualitative and quantitative research. Evidence based practice is defined as aprocess that occurs from professional decision making that is required in thestages of occupational therapy treatment. The professional will askclinical questions that take into consideration the client group being treated.The process of evidence based practice is the professional identifying theproblem, planning and creating an intervention, the professional will thencarry out the intervention and once this has been done they will evaluate theprocess and the outcome of the intervention and decide how effective this was. Qualitative research Qualitative Research know as atype of exploratory research that is used to provide a clarification ofproblems and develops hypotheses for possible quantitative research.Qualitative research includes three different approaches these are known as thegrounded theory approach, phenomenology approach and the ethnography approach. The phenomenological researchexplores the experiences of individuals, whereas ethnography focuses on theinterpretation and critical analysis and explores the culture and customs of aparticular group.
Groundedtheory is known as the systematic generation of theory from systematic research.Interviews, focus groups,observations and written material are ways of collecting data used for qualitativeresearch. For example, Goodacre (2006) used avariety of data collection methods in her 2-year study of women’s experiencesof living with chronic arthritis. Each participant was interviewed twice andtook part in a focus group. Each respondent was also asked to keep a 7-daydiary, structured to half an hour periods where the participant recorded heractivities through the 7-day period; these diaries were used to inform theinterviews. COPIED STRAIGHT. The advantage of using an interview research method isthat it allows the professionals to gain an understanding of each individual’spersonal thoughts and opinions, it also allows the clinician to understand theindividuals experience and how they feel on a daily basis of living witharthritis. Using this type of research method is rewarding as it allows roomfor improvement within practice, and this study can inform practitioner on theareas they will need to focus on.
It also ensures that the questions are fullyunderstood by the participant, and if for any reason the individual does notunderstand what is being said then the interviewer can explain this in simplerterms. However, the disadvantage of using interview methods is that the answerof the women will most likely be different meaning that it will be difficult togain a clear understand of the overall experience of women suffering chronicarthritis. On the other hand one of the main advantages to this method is thatthey have the information from the 70-day diary to back up their evidence and theywill have more of an insight into how these women were feeling during the 7 dayperiod Aqualitative study of baking in mental health used semi structured interviewmethods they believed that this was the right method to use as it they receivedthe individual’s personal response and views. I agree with this statementbecause if they used a different method to gather the data they may not havebeen able to fully gain the perspective of each individual and their opinionsand thoughts of the engagement in occupation baking.
The advantage of usingthis semi structured interview methods is that it allows the person answeringthe question to express their thoughts openly. It also ensures that thequestions asked are relevant to the topic. Quantitative:Inthe world of natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research isdefined as the systematic analytical study of observable phenomena using ofstatistics, mathematics or computation. That is, emphasising on the analysis ofdata using those techniques and these data are normally extracted throughquestionnaires, polls and surveys or by working with pre-existing collectedfigures by means of computational techniques. These are most commonly used toquantify behaviours, responses, moods or attitudes to simplify results from alarger part of the population. Quantitativeresearch is used to assess the success of a specific intervention. Aquantitative study used to explore the attitude and the understanding towardsevidence-based practice of OT students in Ireland used a questionnaire as amethod of collecting data. The results show that all students formed a clearunderstanding of what evidence-based practice is and that they are willing toapply this to practice.
The findingsalso showed that over half the students found it difficult to find evidence. Italso shows that students preferred using textbooks and internet to find theirevidence. The advantage of usingquestionnaires is that large amounts of information can be collected from avariety of people, for example in this study the questionnaires could be usedto collect data from many students without many mistakes being made. Anotherpositive effect of using questionnaire to collect information is that thefindings can be easily quantified. However, on the other side the disadvantageof using this method to collect quantitative data is that some people may notanswer the questions truthfully which means that the results will not be asaccurate. Anexample of quantitative methods used in clinical practice is a randomizedcontrol trial of occupational therapy in patient’s treatment resistantschizophrenia the objective of this randomized control trial is to explore isoccupational therapy is successful when combined with psychopharmacological treatmentin treatment resistant schizophrenia, it involved two groups of patients.
Onegroup had occupational therapy session with clozapine and the second group onlyhad clozapine. This study was carried out over a 6-month period. The findingswere that the group that has clozapine and occupational therapy sessionsbenefited more than the group which one had clozapine. The advantage of using arandomized control trial to carry out this investigation is that this type ofmethod can notify clinicians which treatments are successful in practice andwhich are not working effectively. Thedisadvantage of this particular randomized control trial is the trial time waslong which could have resulted in the loss of relevance, this could be becauseby the time it is published practice may have moved on. Conclusion: Qualitativeand quantitative research are both equally important to the process ofoccupational therapy and evidence based practice, to ensure that practitionersdeliver the best form of care possible.
Qualitative data looks at the individual’spersonal experiences and their feelings, whereas quantitative methods look atnumerical and statistical data being collected. Evidencefrom qualitative data can inform us on feelings and first hand experiences frompatients, giving an idea on what they want which can be used to enhancepractice. Evidence from quantitative data can tell us whether treatments beingused are actually effective and working and also if there is any relationshipbetween two variables and in turn, inform practice. Evidence based practice isa way to deliver the best care, it involves; being critical about the evidencefound and also taking into consideration the feelings of the patient. Ethics isalso something that needs to be kept in mind whilst conducting research and inpractice.