Topic: EnvironmentAir Pollution
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Last updated: August 21, 2019

INTEGRATION OF VARIOUS SOLARCOLLECTOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOGAS ENRICHMENT: Abstract: – Biogas is beneficial gas toenvironment, it is also a renewable source of energy. It also has wide range ofapplications as well in industries. So, it is important to utilize this type ofrenewable source of energy in an efficient way. For this we study variousintegrated solar collector technologies withbiogas system.

The need of integration is to improve the efficiency of thebiogas system. This can be done by maintaining working conditions. Astemperature is the main factor of the biogas production, to maintaintemperature, various researchers gave their views. The best working temperatureof the biogas digester is 37 oC, for colder regions like Srinagar,Leh, Himachal Pradesh, some North-Eastern states of India etc. it is difficultto maintain. Integration of solar collectors with biogas digester would be analternate. In this paper we, review the researches of various researchers, andgave views on their results on the basis of various solar collectortechnologies they used to maintain the working conditions specificallytemperature.

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  1.    Introduction: -Demand of energy is increasing day by day and it is becoming difficultto fulfil this demand by only dependent on the fossil fuels. Fossil fuels arealso found in less amount, are at the end of their life, takes thousands ofyears to modify, cause lot of pollution. With these problems it is necessary tofind some sustainable sources of energy.

Renewable energy sources will become asubstitute. So, it is important to find and utilize that renewable energysources. Some of the renewable energy sources are solar energy, wind energy, OTEC(ocean thermal energy conversion), wave energy, tidal energy, biomass energy,direct conversion energies etc. Technology is advancing at a devastating rateand these technologies are also growing, but there are some limitations alsocomes in account. Some factors are positive factors and some factors arenegative factors. If we take an example of PV(photo-voltaic) solar cells, theyare used for conversion of solar light energy into electricity, the factorsthat affect the efficiency of solar cell are temperature range of the area,dust on the solar cells, solar rays tracking etc. 1. To maintain thesefactors, we have to do some advancement in the photo-voltaic system.

Photo-voltaic thermal would be a solution, floating tracking concentratingcooling(FTCS), water spraying system, heat sink cooling system, forced watercirculation cooling system are also some alternatives 2. Another example isbiogas system limitations in which temperature of the slurry, composition ofbiogas, type of slurry used, Ph, retention time, water content, CN ratio etc.are some of the factors 3-4. In case of colder regions maintainingtemperature is the major priority. Then in the case integration of biogassystem with solar collector technology would be an alternate 5. In this review paper we discussed about the biogas technologies theirtypes and some of its drawbacks. Then types of solar collectors, integration ofphoto-voltaic with thermal i.

e. hybrid PVT technology and some drawbacks ofphoto-voltaic. After researchers review about the integration of biogastechnology with the various types of solar collectors. In the case most of theresearchers are doing work on the flat plate collector, evacuated tubes &flat plate collector with photo-voltaic integration with the biogas systems. Wecan use hybrid PVT in three further ways, Standard flat plate collectors(FPC), HalfPV module mounted on FPC, fully PV module mounted on FPC 6. 2.    Biogas technology: -Biogas technology relates to production of biogas from different typesof biomass, by the principle of anaerobic digestion and in different ways.

Generally, biogas is produced by four biochemical processes. These biochemicalprocesses include; i) Hydrolysis, ii) Acidogenesis, iii) Acetogenesis, iv)Methanogenesis 7. Various researches also take place to improve thefunctioning of every step i.e. continuous production and batch production.

Someresearches work on feed stock material used in the digester some materials likemunicipal waste, organic waste, switch grass, Stover, wheat grass etc. In hydrolysisand acidogenesis all proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids are converted in toacids and in acetogenisis and methanogenesis all remaining acids converted intomethane, ammonia and carbon dioxide as main product. This type of digestion fallsunder three categories of temperatures, these are; psychrophilic temp.

(rangesbetween 10-20 oC), mesophilic temp. (ranges between 20-35 oC),thermophilic temp. (50-60 oC). But the case of thermophilic temp.

isnot appropriate in respect to concentration of bio gas, in this case retentiontime is less but the amount of gases in bio gas i.e. methane concentration isvery low 8.  Biogas constitutes ofmethane(CH4) percentage of about 40-75%, carbon dioxide percentage about25-55% and some amount of corrosive substances like hydrogen sulfide around 1%.Now these days biogas plant technology is improving at a very high rate, butthe problem is public are not relying on, they don’t trust on biogas system. Forthis various researcher are working and giving probable solutions on the biogas system. Some types of the biogas plants are discussed in the next article.    2.1 Types of biogas plants: –   

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