Intro to Literature – Poetry – Review

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Last updated: December 16, 2019
poetry~ personal definition
a literary work in which special intensity is given to the expression of feelings and ideas by the use of distinctive style and rhythm; ~ a composition of words and phrases set to a specific, rhythmic pattern or to no pattern at all, used to express the author’s feelings and emotions. ~

“poieo” – I create.
From what Greek word did “poetry” come from? What is its meaning?

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“The spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings.

” – William Wordsworth”Poetry is what makes me laugh or cry or yawn, what makes my toenails twinkle, what makes me want to do this or that or nothing.” – Dylan Thomas”Poetry is truth in its Sunday clothes.” – Joseph Roux”Poetry is when an emotion has found its thought and the thought has found words.” – Robert Frost

List some quotes that define poetry.

*Answers will vary.*Read it aloud. Recognize the lineation in various ways. Read it again (aloud if you prefer) using various lineation styles. Discuss the poem, beginning with a focused question. Ask general questions. Interpret the poem using contextual information (if needed).

Always embrace ambiguity.

How should one read poetry?

*Answers will vary.*
Why read or write poetry?

a short poem or other set of words set to music or meant to be sung; poetry set to music.

False; All songs with lyrics are poetry, but NOT all poetry is song.
All songs with lyrics are poetry, and all poetry is song.

the appearance of the words on the page.

a group of words together on one line of the poem.

a group of lines arranged together.

– couplet: 2 lines- triplet (tercet): 3 lines- quatrain: 4 lines- quintet: 5 lines- sestet (sextet): 6 lines- septet: 7 lines- octave: 8 lines
List the seven types of stanzas and how many lines each has.

gives a poem its sound; used in many different ways; lots of related elements.

the emphasis given to a syllable

a vocal impulse; a unit of pronunciation having one vowel sound, with or without surrounding consonants, forming the whole or a part of a word; fills a line of poetry.

a combination of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry.

unstressed – Ustressed – /
What symbol denotes an unstressed syllable? A stressed syllable?

– iamb/iambus (iambic) – unstressed, stressed ( U / )- trochee (trochaic) – unstressed, stressed ( / U )- spondee (spondaic) – stressed, stressed ( / / )- dactyl (dactylic) – stressed, unstressed, unstressed ( / U U)- anapest (anapestic) – unstressed, unstressed, stressed ( U U /)
List the five types of feet and the stress pattern each has.

the number of feet that is on a line of poetry; in poetry, the rhythmic arrangement of syllables and patterns of stresses in a poetic line. It allows a poet to orchestrate the flow of rhythm with words in a strategic/effective way.

– monometer: 1 foot- dimeter: 2 feet- trimeter: 3 feet- tetrameter: 4 feet- pentameter: 5 feet- hexameter: 6 feet- heptameter: 7 feet- octameter: 8 feet
List the eight types of meter and how many feet each has.

Rhythm is made up of syllables and, therefore, feet.

free verse
non-metrical, non-rhyming lines that closely follow the natural rhythms of speech; a regular pattern of sound or rhythm may emerge in lines, but the poet does not adhere to a metrical plan in their composition.

blank verse
most often written in non-rhyming iambic pentameter; a.k.a. “heroic verse”; no fixed number of lines; most often features a 10-syllable line and is the predominant rhythm of traditional English dramatic and epic poetry, as it is considered the closest to English speech patterns.

popular classical form that has compelled poets for centuries; traditionally a 14-line poem written in iambic pentameter, which employs one of several rhyme schemes and adheres to a tightly structured thematic organization.

“sonetto” – a little sound or song.
From what Italian word did “sonnet” come from? What is its meaning?

– the Shakespearean sonnet- the Italian/Petrarchan sonnet
What are the two types of sonnets?

the Shakespearean sonnet
contains 3 quatrains and a couplet that follows this rhyme scheme: abab, cdcd, efef, gg; plays a pivotal role arriving in the format of a conclusion, amplification, or refutation of the previous 3 stanzas, often creating an epiphonic quality to the end.

the Italian/Petrarchan sonnet
named after Petrarch; divided into 2 stanzas – 8 lines then 6 lines; tightly woven rhyme scheme: abba, abba, cdecde OR cdcdcd; suited for the rhyme-rich Italian language, though there are many fine English examples; presents an argument, observation, question, or some other answerable change in tune (octave); a turn occurs between the 8th and 9th lines, which marks a shift in the direction of the foregoing argument or narrative sestet into an argument or something else.

a transitional phase in a sonnet.

often a narrative set to music; began to be popular in the late Medieval period and into the 19th century; now, often refers to a slow form of popular love song; a story; emotional urgency; usually in 4-line stanzas (quatrain) containing as few as 3 or 4 stresses and rhyming either the 2nd or 4th lines.

serious; reflection; lament for the dead.

1.) lament2.) praise3.) consolation, solace
What are the three stages of an elegy?

a comparison which imaginatively identifies one thing with another dissimilar thing, and transfers or ascribes to the first thing some of the qualities of the second; does not use “like” or “as”.

the recurrence of initial consonant sounds.

a direct, expressed comparison between two thing essentially unlike each other, but resembling each other in at least one way; uses “like” or “as”.

a reference to a famous historical/literary figure or event.

a word or group of words in a literary work which appeal to one of more of the senses: sight, taste, touch, hearing, and smell; used to intensify the impact of the work.

color imagery
a word or group of words in a literary work which appeal to one of more of the senses using color.

a situation or a statement that seems to contradict itself, but on closer inspection, does not.

when an inanimate object is given human-like characteristic.

a great exaggeration.

a repetition of vowels anywhere in the words.

the ending of words sound alike.

words or phrases are repeated for emphasis.

words that sound like the name of the word.

a repetition of consonants anywhere in the words.

figurative language
language that uses words or expressions with a meaning that is different from the literal interpretation.

a detailed examination of; to analyze logically.

a collection of a thing, often literary, having a common theme.

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