Intro to Music Literature Test 1

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Type:

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Last updated: May 3, 2019

meter
organization of beats according to accents

simple meter
beats are not grouped into larger pulses

compound meter
beats are separated into groups of 3; each group of 3 is one pulse

consonance
harmony that is at rest; no compelling need to move on

dissonance
harmony that needs resolution

resolution
movement from dissonance to consonance

motive
distinctive fragment of a melody

phrase
shortest melodic unit that ends with a cadence

theme
basic melody for a longer piece of music

period
a pair of related phrases

cadence
a momentary or final resting point in music

texture
the blend of sounds and melodies in a piece of music

monophony
consists of only one melody and nothing else

homophony
one main melody; the other melodies accompany

polyphony
two or more melodic lines sounding together; counterpoint

tonality
there is one most important pitch

modulation
movement from one tonal center to another

4 choirs of the orchestra
string, woodwind, brass, percussion

strings
violin, viola, cello, contra bass

woodwind
flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon

brass
french horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba

percussion
timpani, mallet

Middle Ages
400-1400

chant
gregorian chant; plainchant; plainsong

features of chant
monophonic, no definite time signature, dynamics followed contour of music, phrases distinguished by pauses, Latin

troubadours
poets/composers/performers from southern France

trouveres
poets/composers/performers from northern France

music sung by troubadours/trouveres
chanson

features of chansons
monophonic, metered, rhythm dictated by French text, strophic, courtly love

organum
medieval polyphonic sacred music; old melody combined with new melody

organum composers
Leonin; Perotin

organization of organum
stretched out the chant into very long notes (bottom); new melody moved along very rhythmically (top)

motet
medieval polyphonic secular music; chant voice on bottom moving in regular rhythm, two french secular voices on top moving faster

Mauchaut
motet composer

renaissance
rebirth of classical Greek values and ideas; 1400-1600

Guillaume Dufay
established renaissance musical language

movements of the renaissance mass
kyrie, gloria, credo, sanctus, angus dei

Josquin des Prez
imitative polyphony

Palestrina
regulated music with a lot of rules

baroque
1600-1750

reasons for beginning baroque
reaction to complicated music of renaissance

opera
staged drama set to music

mythological plots
opera composers thought that ancient greek plays were sung, so they used greek subject matter in their plots

recitative
speech-like singing intended to advance the plot

aria
tuneful music intended to comment on the plot

basso continuo
bass line with accompanying harmonic notation

Monteverdi
Italian, one of the first opera composers, “The Coronation of Poppea”

Henry Purcell
British, “Dido and Aeneas”

concerto
a work for solo instrument and orchestra

concerto grosso
a work for a small group of soloists and orchestra

format of typical concerto/concerto grossos
fast; slow; fast

composer associated with concerto grossos
Vivaldi

composer associated with concertos
Bach

ritornello
ABACADA….

fugue
a work of imitative polyphony in which each voice enters separately at the beginning with the main melody

church cantata
a 30-min work using choir, soloists, and orchestra that was performed on sundays in the lutheran church

chorale
an early lutheran hymn

adagio
slow

andante
on the slow side, but not too slow

moderato
moderate tempo

allegretto
on the fast side, but not too fast

allegro
fast

presto
very fast

largo
slow, very slow

larghetto
somewhat faster than largo

andantino
somewhat faster than andante

vivace
lively

molto allegro
faster than allegro

prestissimo
very fast indeed

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