Intro to Poetry-Exam 2

Topics: ArtSymbolism

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Last updated: December 13, 2019

John Keats
-English Romantic poet 1795-1821 (died when he was 25)-Both parents died before 15; brother died of TB-Worked as an apprentice to a surgeon; druggist-Poems deal with death; letters make him seem more personable and playful

Male Romantics (6)
-William Blake-William Wordsworth-John Keats-Samuel Taylor Coleridge-Lord Byron-Percy Shelley

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Romantic Themes (6)
-Individual-Imagination-Nature-Childhood-Melancholy-Emotions vs. reason

Keatsian Ideas: Negative capability and Ut Picture Poesis
-Negative capability- the time when “a man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason… that with a great poet the sense of Beauty overcomes every consideration, or rather obliterates all consideration”-Ut Picture Poesis- as is poetry, so is painting (Ancient Latin phrase for artists)

What poems did John Keats write?
-Ode on a Grecian Urn (spoken poem)-> ancient Greek pot, existing in an eternal spring, forever yearning, unmoving illustrations-On Seeing the Elgin Marbles-> death and dying are waiting, sonnet, looking at things he hasn’t done yet, memories=hurting, painful

Photography in the 19th century
1839- Daugerrotype1854- Image on Glass1856- Tintype1859- CDV (card)

Types of Photography
-Travel photography increased the “Grand Tour”-Promoted exoticism-Post-mortem photography

Photography Ideals
-Trying to capture a moment-Present “scientific” or “truthful” evidence-Display of power/colonization/representation-Photography legend: the picture steals your soul

Thomas Hardy
-Victorian Novelist/Modern Poet-Married, became estranged, obsessed over wife’s death even after he remarried-Criticized social constraints-Influenced by Naturalism and Darwinism (natural law)

What poems did Thomas Hardy write?*
The Photograph-> burning the picture, burning the memory

Christina Rossetti
-Born 1830-Aspiring artist-Engaged once but broke it off-Sick most of her life-Worked closely with the Pre-Raphelite Brotherhood-Devout evangelical, embraced Tractarianism (religious belief that God revealed Himself in symbols)-Influenced by Anglican Sisterhood (Worked with “fallen women” to rehabilitate them; Catholicism)

What did Christina Rossetti write?
Goblin Market (associated with art/illustrations some of which are happy and bright while others are dark and hell-like)-> 2 sisters Laura and Lizzie; fruit being sold by the goblins; Laura eats it and gets sick; Lizzie kisses fruit juice off her sister’s cheeks and cures her-> sing/song, rhythm, siren call, hard to say

William Blake
-1757-1827-Artists/mystic/eccentric-Engraver- illustrated manuscripts-Wife Catherine- taught her to read/write -“Marriage of Heaven and Hell,” “America: Aprophecy,” “Songs of Innocence and Experience”-“Without contraries is no progression” -“I must create a system, or be enslave’d by another man’s. I will not reason and compare: my business is to create”

William Blake’s Human Interests
-Poor (chimney sweeps, children)-Racial discrimination-Sexual discrimination (prostitutes)-Women’s rights and education-National liberty and equality-Religious reform

Allen Ginsberg and the Beat poets of 60s
-World traveler-Spiritual seeker/Easter religions-Involved in Civil Rights in America 1960s-Gay rights and drug culture activist-Wrote poems inspired by Blake

What poems did William Blake write?
-Introduction to the Songs of Innocence-> religious intonations -The Tyger-> description of the tiger, comparison to the blacksmith-The Lamb-> coming from a child, Jesus coming to the child

Alfred Lord Tennyson
-“I am a part of all that I have met”-Friend Arthur Hallam died-> “Tis better to have loved and lost, than never to have loved at all”-Well educated at Cambridge (no degree)-Received harsh reviews-Poet Laureate after Wordsworth-Influenced the Pre-Raphaelite painters (Waterhouse, Grimshaw, Giancolo, the Band Perry)

What did Alfred Lord Tennyson write?
The Lady of Shalott-> has to be at the spindle forever, looks away, is cursed to die, tries to go get her prince in Camelot, dies in the boat

William Wordsworth
-Siblings and family were supportive of poetry-Parents dead by 15; 2 of his kids died-Heavily influenced by the French Revolution-Interested in the life and hardships of “the common man”-Started English Romantic movement-Loved democracy; loved humanity’s relationship with nature and the human mind-“LYRICAL BALLADS”

What did William Wordsworth write?
A Character-> human experiences different contrasting ideas, positive words/negative words, positive outlook on life but still sees the negative

Emily Dickinson
-Seldom left her home; lived in isolation-Influenced by Metaphysical poets and her Puritan upbringing (Calvinism)-Never married, never had children-Family discovered 40 volumes of 1,800 poems in hand-sewn books called fascicles after her death-THEMES- imagery, struggle with God, assertion of self, nature-Lyric poetry- short poems with a single speaker

What did Emily Dickinson write?
“Hope” is the thing with feathers-> metaphorical bird

Herman Melville
-Father died when Melville was 12-Taken out of school to support fam-Seafaring life-Influenced by sea experiences (ABAB form)-Themes- hardships, sea, nature

What did Herman Melville write?
Healed of my Hurt-> happy imagery, hopeful themes, makes you believe in future

Robert Frost
-Valedictorian of his high school-Moved to London to get published-Themes- nature, communication, everyday life, isolation of individual, rationality vs imagination, rural life vs urban

What did Robert Frost write?
The Road Not Taken-> roads diverging, choosing one

Sarojini Naidu
-Born and died in India-Oldest of 8; got married at 19; had 5 kids -1st woman to become governor of an Indian state; 2nd woman to become president of the Indian National Congress-Themes- nature, love, life/death, folk life, Indian culture

What did Sarojini Naidu write?
Life-> living full lives

What John Keats poem emphasized the ability of art to capture the truth of human emotion?
Ode on a Grecian Urn

What Christina Rossetti poem acts both as a fairy tale and a story about rescuing fallen women?
Goblin Market

What Thomas Hardy poem illustrates the power of images to contain our love and hate?
The Photograph

What Tennyson poem narrates the plight of a woman who is unfulfilled in love?
Lady of Shalott

What Wordsworth poem reveals the intricacies and complexities of human nature within the figure of a common man?
A Character

What Blake poems juxtaposed images of God as both fearful and gentle?
The Tyger and the Lamb

e.e.

cummings

-Wrote a poem a day between 8-22-Arrested for suspicion of espionage-Had an affair with his wife’s BFF-Parisian influence, pacifist-Spare/precise, eccentric use of grammar and punctuation, love, nature, childhood, imagination

What poems did e.e. cummings write?
-I Like-I Will Be-Humanity I Love You

Marianne Moore
-American modernist poet; known for irony and wit-Masculine writing-Emphasis on discipline, heroic behavior, spiritual grace, love-Focus on animals and athletes

What did Marianne Moore write?
Silence-> poem about her father saying something (statement on silence)

Langston Hughes
-African American music influenced him-Early 20th century Harlem Renaissance guy-American Dream, music, aspirations, racism, wisdom

What did Langston Hughes write?
-Daybreak in Alabama-The Weary Blues-I too Sing America

Maya Angelou
-Raped; uncle killed the man who raped her; mute until 13-Love, painful loss, music, discrimination, overcoming hardships

What did Maya Angelou write?
Still I Rise

Which poet’s style was characterized by wit, irony, precision, unemotionalism?
Marianne Moore

Which poet’s style was characterized by erratic structure, playfulness?
e.e. cummings

Which poet’s style was characterized by personal lyric, dashes, thoughts in images?
Emily Dickinson

Which poet’s style was characterized by emotions, more formal structure, themes from hardships of life and at sea?
Herman Melville

Which poet’s style was characterized by mysticism, folk life, rich imagery?
Sarojini Naidu

Khalil Gibran
-Born in Lebanon, died in NYC-Very poor, settled in Boston-Sister died from TB; older brother died from TB-3rd best selling poet behind Shakespeare and Laozi-Formal language, spiritual terms, spiritual love, mysticism

What did Khalil Gibran write?
On Children ->valuing individuality, powerful metaphor, archer metaphor (God)

Ezra Pound
-1st published at 11-Involved in Fascist politics in Italy; arrested for treason in the US; declared mentally ill and was committed; died a semi-recluse-Defined and promoted modern aesthetic in poetry-Themes- economics, love, nature, history, journey-Studied Chinese and Japanese poetry

What did Ezra Pound write?
A Girl-> allusion to Daphne and Apollo; extended tree metaphor being the girl

Stephen Dunn
-All poetry speaks to real things that happen in people’s lives-Concerned with anxieties, joys, problems of how to co-exist in the world-Lyrical poems

What did Stephen Dunn write?
With No Experience in Such Matters-> killing the damaged sparrow, the dad on life support, the one good wing in your hand, do you do it or not?

Who wrote “Lyrical Ballads,” an intro to the Romantic period?
William Wordsworth

Compiled 1800 poems in a hand-sewn portfolio?
Emily Dickinson

His work “The Prophet” parallels his interest in understanding various religious influences?
Khalil Gibran

Wrote a poem a day?
e.

e. cummings

1st poem was “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”?
Langston Hughes

Wrote “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,” an autobiographical work?
Maya Angelou

Served as both a governor and president in India?
Sarojini Naidu

Was influenced and tangentially related to the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood, though not formally admitted?
Christina Rossetti

Jane Flanders
-Died of cancer-After her death, almost 700 poems were found-Ironist’s view on life, humor through fantasy and dreams, EKPHRASTIC POETRY BASED ON JOHN CONSTABLE’S CLOUDS/SKY PAINTINGS ETC.

What did Jane Flanders write?
Cloud Painter

Walt Whitman
-American poet, essayist, journalist, Civil War era-Humanist-> part of transition between transcendentalism and realism-FATHER OF FREE VERSE-Symbolism- connection of the human body to nature, human mind and spirit-“Leaves of Grass” 1st collection of poems published in 1855; very controversial (obscenity and overly sexual)

What did Walt Whitman write?
When I heard the Learn’d Astronomer-> freedom is both a blessing and a curse; to understand nature, you need to experience it using intuition and mysticism; DOESN’T LIKE scientific lecture-Omg Breaking Bad

What did Charles Wright write?
Shadow and Smoke-> live your live as if you’re already dead! light is never a metaphor

Pre-Raphaelite
Rossetti

Romantics
Keats, Wordsworth, Blake

Harlem Renaissance
Hughes

Transcendentalism
Whitman

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