The repetition of consonant sounds in the middle of words.
A brief, and sometimes indirect, reference in a text to a person, place, or thing–fictitious or practical. It is used to enhance meaning.
A direct address to someone or something. In poetry it often addresses something not ordinarily spoken to.
The repetition of two or more vowel sounds in successive words, which creates a kind of rhyme.
A word of sequence or words that refers to the sense of hearing.
This term has two related meanings. It originally referred to the greatest period of Roman literature. It also refers to the early 18th century in English literature, a neoclassical period.
A song that tells a story, characteristically compressed, dramatic, and objective in narrative style. Most consist of quatrains in a simple rhyme scheme.
The most common pattern of ballad makers consists of four lines rhymed abcb, in which the first and third lines have four metrical feet and the second and fourth have three feet.
The most common and well-known meter of unrhymed poetry in English. It has five iambic feet per line and is unrhymed.
A type of folk music originally developed by African Americans in the South, often about some pain or loss. The lyrics traditionally consist of three-line stanzas in which the first two identical lines are followed by a third concluding, rhyming line.
A harsh, discordant sound often mirroring the meaning of the context in which it is used.
A pause within a line of verse
American scholar Francis J. Child compiled a collection of over three hundred authentic ballads in his book
Two rhymed lines that contain an independent and complete thought or statement.
A careful reading that is attentive to organization, figurative language, sentence structure, vocabulary, and other literary and structural elements of a text.
The casual or informal but correct language of ordinary native speakers, which may include contractions, slang, and shifts in grammar, vocabulary, and diction.
regular form of ballad meter with 2 sets of rhymes – ABAB
A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects
All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests
Consonance or Slant Rhyme
Repetition of a consonant sound within two or more words in close proximity.
A pair of rhymed lines that may or may not constitute a separate stanza in a poem
Propriety or appropriateness, refers to the level of diction that is proper to use in a certain occasion.
Literal meaning of a word as it appears in the dictionary
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
A writer’s or speaker’s choice of words.
A kind of poetry intended to teach the readers a moral lesson or impart a body of knowledge. It aims for education over art.
A special kind of suspenseful expectation, when the audience or reader understands the implication and meaning of a situation and foresees the oncoming disaster or triumph but the character does not.
A type of poem in which a speaker addresses a silent listener.
As readers, we overhear the speaker in a ____ _____.
Any verse written for the stage, also a kind of poetry that presents the voice of an imaginary character speaking directly, without any additional comments by the author.
a note at the end of the document or section that is used to cite references or to give more information
A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line
English or Shakespearean sonnet
made up of three quatrains and a couplet and rhymes abab, cdcd, efef, gg
Agreeableness of sound; pleasing effect to the ear; especially a pleasant sounding or harmonious combination or succession of words
Full rhyme in which the sounds following the initial letters of the words are identical in sound. Ex: follow and hollow, go and slow.
a slow unfolding, an act of interpreting or discovering the meaning of a text, usually involves close reading and special attention to figurative language.
rhyme that appears correct from spelling but does not rhyme because of pronunciation
a rhyme of two syllables, one stressed and one unstressed, as
Figure of Speech
An expression or comparison that relies not on its literal meaning, but rather on its connotations and suggestions.
Anonymous narrative songs, usually in ballad meter.
They were originally created for oral performance, often resulting in many versions of a single ballad.
The heightened, impersonal language of educated persons, usually only written, although possibly spoken on dignified occasions.
Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme
ordinary speech of educated native speakers
A Japanese form of poetry, consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables
(sometimes called a closed couplet) consists of two successive rhyming verses that contain a complete thought within the two lines. It usually consists of iambic pentameter lines.
using exaggeration to give impact to a statement
A metrical foot in verse in which an unaccented syllable is followed by an accented one. It is the most common meter used in English poetry.
A verse meter consisting of a specific recurring number of iambic feet per line.
Imagery is the use of vivid language to represent objects, actions, or ideas. Details usually refer to the 5 senses.
The collective set of images in a poem or other literary work.
does not state explicitly the two terms of the comparison:
A poetic device in which a word in the middle of a line rhymes with a word at the end of the same metrical line.
Ironic point of view
The perspective of a character or narrator whose voice or position is rich with ironic contradictions.
A contrast or discrepancy between what is stated and what is really meant, or between what is expected to happen and what actually does happen.
Irony of fate
a type of situational irony that can be used for either tragic or comic purposes; the discrepancy between actions and their results, between what characters deserve and what they get
Also called Petrarchan sonnet, it rimes the octave (the first 8 lines) a, b, b, a, a, b, b, a; the sestet (last 6 lines) may follow any rime pattern, as long as it does not end in a couplet. The poem traditionally turns, or shifts in mood or tone after the octave.
Levels of diction
In English there are four basic levels of formality in word choice, vulgate, colloquial, general, and formal English
Ballad not meant for singing, written for literate readers by sophisticated poets rather than arising from oral tradition
A short poem expressing the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker.
A short secular song for three or more voices arranged in counterpoint.
Either a rhyme of one syllable words (fox and socks) or in polysyllabic words (contrive and survive)
A statement that one thing is something else, which, in a literal sense, it is not.
A recurrent, regular, rhythmic pattern in verse. When stresses recur at fixed intervals
Figure of speech in which the name of a thing is substituted for that of another closely associated with it
A metaphor that trips over another metaphor–usually unconsciously–already in the statement. Results from combining two or more incompatible metaphors resulting in ridiculousness or nonsense.
A poem that tells a story
A term for a recent literary movement in which young poets began using rhyme, meter, and narrative again
A stanza of eight lines
A literary device that attempts to represent a thing or action by the word that imitates the sound associated with it
Exaggeration to emphasize a point.
A statement that at first strikes one as self-contradictory, but that a reflection reveals some deeper sense.
The restatement in one’s own words of what we understand a literary work to say.
A mocking imitation of a literary work or individual author’s style, usually for comic effect
A verse meter consisting of five metrical feet, or five primary stresses, per line
A figure of speech in which a thing, an animal, or an abstract term is endowed with human characteristics
Strictly speaking, any language deemed suitable for verse, but the term generally refers to elevated language intended for poetry rather than common use
An artificial word that combines parts of other words to express some combination of their qualities
A play on words in which one word is substituted for another similar or identical sound, but of very different meaning
A stanza consisting of four lines. The most common stanza form used in English-language poetry
A popular style of music that emerged in the 1980’s in which lyrics are spoken or chanted over a steady beat
A word, phrase or stanza repeated at intervals in a song or poem
A pattern of stresses and pauses in a poem
Two or more words that contain an identical or similar vowel sound, especially accented, with following consonant sounds identical as well
Any recurrent pattern of rhyme within an individual poem or fixed form
A meter whose movement rises from an unstressed syllable to a stressed syllable. Iambic and Anapestic are examples.
A conspicuously bitter form of irony in which the ironic statement is designed to hurt or mock its target
Poetry that blends criticism with humor to convey a message
A practice used to describe rhythmic patterns in a poem by separating the metrical feet, counting the syllables, marking the accents, and indicating the pauses.
A comparison of two things, indicated by a connective, usually like or as.
A rhyme in which the final consonant sounds are the same but the vowel sounds are different, and in letter and litter
“little song,” A traditional and widely used verse form, especially popular for love poetry.
It has a fixed form of 14 lines, usually in iambic pentameter and made of an octave and a sestet.
“stopping place,” A recurring pattern of two or more lines of verse, poetry’s equivalent to the paragraph
An emphasis or accent placed on a syllable in speech
The main topic of a poem, story, or play
A brief condensation of the main idea or story of a literary work, less detailed than a paraphrase.
The use of a significant part of a thing to stand for the whole of it or vice versa.
A word or sequence of words that refers to the sense of touch
A group of three lines of verse, usually all ending in the same end rhyme
A refrain that appears at the end
A verse form made up of three-line stanzas that are connected by an overlapping rhyme scheme
A generally recurring subject or idea conspicuously eveident iin a literary work
The attitude toward a subject conveyed in a literary work
Trochaic or trochee
a metrical foot in which a stressed syllable is followed by an unstressed syllable as in the words sum-mer and chor-us. It is often associated with songs, chants, and magic spells in English
lyric poets who sang
An ironic figure of speech that deliberately describes something in a way that is less than the true case
A statement in which the speaker or writer says the opposite of what is really meant
“to turn” It has two meanings. It refers to any single line of poetry, and it also refers to any composition in lines of more or less regular rhythm
A fixed form developed to imitate the Italian folk song. It consists of six rhymed stanzas in which two lines are repeated in a prescribed pattern
A word or sequence of words that refers to the sense of sight or [represents something one may see]
The lowest level of formality in language. The diction of common people with no refinements or elevations. It refers to unschooled, everyday language
An emphasis or stress on a syllable in speech. Clear pronunciation of polysyllabic words almost always depends on correct placement of their stresses.
A meter that uses a consistent number of strong speech stresses per line.
A poem in which the initial letters of each line, when read downward, spell out a hidden word of words.
A narrative in verse or prose in which the literal events consistently point to a parallel sequence of symbolic ideas.
A metrical foot in verse in which two unstressed syllables are followed by a stressed syllable, as in “on a boat” or “in a slump”
Two couplets with a focus on a well-known person who is named in the first line
A generic term that describes poetry written in a pattern of meter, rime, lines, or stanzas. A closed form adheres to a set structure.
A visual poetry composed exclusively for the page in which a picture or image is made of printed letters and words. Concrete poetry attempts to blur the line between language and visual objects, usually relying on puns and cleverness.
A metrical foot consisting of one accented syllable followed by two unaccented syllables
A line of poetry consisting of two metrical feet.
A lament, melancholy composition.
line of poetry that has a full pause at the end, typically indicated by a period or semicolon
A long narrative poem that records the adventures of a hero.
A short poem that ends in a witty or ingenious turn of thought, to which the rest of the composition is intended to lead up.
A brief quotation preceding a story or other literary work. it usually suggests the subject, theme, or atmosphere the story will explore,
Poetic meters such as trochaic and dactylic that move or fall from a stressed to an unstressed syllable.
A traditional verse form requiring certain predetermined elements of structure – for example, a stanza pattern, set meter, or predetermined line length.
The means by which a literary work conveys its meaning.
A verse line containing seven feet
a verse line having six metrical feet
a humorous verse form of 5 anapestic lines with a rhyme scheme aabba
A metrical line containing one foot
a verse line having eight metrical feet
A type of structure or form in poetry characterized by freedom from regularity and consistency in such elements as rhyme, line length, metrical pattern, and overall poetic structure.
Charles Olson’s theory that poets compose by listening to their own breathing and using it as a rhythmic guide rather than poetic meter or form.
A line of poetry without punctuation at its end.
A six-line unit of verse constituting a stanza or section of a poem; the last six lines of an Italian sonnet.
39-line poem of six stanzas of six lines each and a final stanza (called an envoi) of three lines. Rhyme plays no part in the sestina. Instead, one of six words is used as the end word of each of the poem’s lines according to a fixed pattern.
a metrical unit with stressed-stressed syllables
a verse line having four metrical feet
A line of verse consisting of three metrical feet.
the study of poetic meter and the art of versification
A conventionalized stanza at the close of a poem, which is addressed to a prince or patron, usually having four lines rhyming abab
a contemporary genre of folk poetry written by people with firsthand experience in the life of horse, trail, and ranch
(adj) 1) following accepted custom or practice 2) conforming to traditional standards
two rimed lines of iambic pentameter that usually contain an independent and complete though or statement. Also called heroic couplet.
A sudden and unexpected drop from the lofty to the trivial or excessively sentimental. Intended to create humor though fails
Poems printed on a single sheet of paper, often set to traditional tunes.
a refrain whose words change slightly with each recurrence