IntroductionPakistanis one of the highly vulnerable to climate change among countries.
The effectsof climate increases over time in Pakistan as Pakistan facing manyenvironmental issues which include flood in some of the region in Pakistan(schilling et al, .2013) and also increases in health issues due to the climatechange which effect the health of labor through which production of agriculturesector going down due to the lack of labor. According to the ranking ofvulnerability index (CCVI) Pakistan stand at 29th number over theperiod of 2009-2010 and the stand at 16th number over the period of2010 to 2011(Khan and Fee, 2014).Agricultureis the strength of an economy. In Pakistan, it is a dominant and second biggestsector.
In rural areas, 63 percent households directly or indirectly dependupon agriculture in Pakistan. In GDP it contributes 19.5 percent and 42.
3percent in labor force. There are five sub-sectorscontains livestock’s, major, minor crops, forestry, and fisheries. In majorcrops, cotton, rice, wheat, and sugarcane are included and contribute 6.
5percent in GDP. Cotton is used in textile industry as a raw material as it isbasic non-food crop and Pakistan is the 4th largest producer ofcotton (Raza et al., 2012)InPakistan cotton is second important cash crop after wheat and it consists largearea for cultivation and it is increased in last 30 years by 7.
86 millionhectares. Pakistan earns a large part of its export revenue from cotton. The 80percent of the production of oilseed comes from the seed of cotton. In GDP, thecontribution of cotton and its product is 10 percent and in foreign exchangeearnings is 55 percent in Pakistan (GOP, 2016-2017).Thewater footprints are defined as the volume of water required for the productionof goods & services and it measures the consumption of water in crops perunit.
The volume of water which is used by the domestic water resources areinternal WFs and the volume of water which is used for good and services thatare imported and consumed by the individual by the country are external waterfootprints. The consumption of water footprints in Pakistan estimated theinternal water footprints is 1119 (m3/cap/yr) and external water footprints 63(m3/cap/yr) in agriculture sector and in the industrial good the consumption ofinternal water footprints is 12 (m3/cap/yr) and external water footprints is 2(m3/cap/yr). Globally the volume of water used is 6390 Gm3/yr for the cropproduction and rice contributes its largest share in volume of water that is1359 Gm3/yr and which is nearly 21 percent of the total volume, and wheatcontributes 12 percent and which is the 2nd largest share in total volume ofwater and Maize contributes 9 percent and seed cotton contributes 3 percent inthe total volume of the water (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007).Successfulcotton production entirely depends upon the water availability. Irrigatedagriculture is facing acute competition for low cost and high-quality water andworld is looking for water-saving agriculture, which refers to full advantageof available irrigation facilities (Howell, 2001). Wateris the very important input in deciding the choice of crop.
Cotton is mainlygrown in southern Punjab usually because of low water demand and moderatelydrier conditions. In many areas spread more than 0.6 million acres canal wateris limited along these lines lack is met through pumping underground water. Thekept saddling of groundwater has caused serious penalties of depletion of waterto further layers which over the long run is predicted to have enormousimplications. Saving maybe a couple irrigation system through better managementpractices may give dreadful help to the farmers not just related to loweringthe cost of production but also prolonged conservation of water under soil(Gill, 2000).Watersaving agriculture aims to raise water utilization rate and efficiency forachieving a high economic yield on irrigated farmland with the minimum input ofwater at both public and private levels.
Water saving is a comprehensiveexercise using every possible measure in farm production, including full use ofnatural precipitation as well as efficient management of an irrigation networkthrough a suitable planting method. There are some planting methods of are flat sowing, bed and furrowsowing, broadcasting and drill sowing. Planting methods are important factorswhich affect crop growth and finally the crop yield. Better irrigation wateruse efficiency can be attained through implementing the best managementpractices of irrigation (Khan & Ullah, 1991).Theconcept of carbon footprints is new that introduce and gives the knowledge ofemission and its tools and methods are helpful in finding the variousenvironmental issues. The definition of carbon footprints is not proper,conceptually in carbon footprints, anthropogenic activities are involved that relevantto radiation or emission sources and climatic effects (wiedmanm, 2009). Cottonis soft fiber that grows in protecting boll. Its family is Gossypium.
Pakistan’s textile industry heavily depends upon cotton production as itproviding raw material. In Pakistan, there are various reasons for lowproduction of cotton-high price rates of seeds, pesticides fertilizers etc,lack of new technologies, improved seeds and awareness. Pests and insectsattacks are high. Cotton is cash crop so it provides the business possibilityfor the sector of fertilizer and pesticide sector. In cotton use of pesticidesis very high and this crop also very important for women empowerment because itprovides work opportunity likes picking the cotton bolls.
Cotton grows usually inthe two provinces of Pakistan first in Punjab and the second one in Sindh. Hightemperature and heavy rain and most of the pest affect on Pakistancotton-growing district of Punjab and Sindh province last year in 2016. Thecotton is being planted in Southern Punjab cover the regions Multan,Bahawalpur, Muzaffargarh, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalnagar, Vehari and noteworthy belonging of Sindh is under cottondevelopment (Iqbal ).Thebasic purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of the water and carbon footprintsfor the production of cotton. The cotton production should be increased becauseit is second important cand footprints of carbon and water should be estimated.The policy should be reinforced by Government for the development ofagriculture sector for the production of cotton.
OBJECTIVES· To estimate the profitability of cottonproduction.· To estimate determinant that effectcotton yield.· To estimate the carbon and water footprints of cotton production.· To suggest policy implications based onthe findings of the research. REVIEW OF LITERATUREInGDP, the contribution of cotton is major and value addition and cotton is avery important cash crop. It is estimated that more than 5 million people’slivelihood depends upon cotton. The contribution of cottonseed is 3.
6 millionton for production of edible oil. The cultivation of cotton is extended toPunjab to Sindh. The effect of water and carbon footprints on cotton productionincreased and yield of cotton effected. The purpose of present study is to estimatethe effect of water and carbon footprints on the production of cotton. Someimportant and relevant review of literature given below.Naidu and Shankar (2007)usedCobb-Douglas production function to estimate the productivity of cotton andeconomics aspects that affect the production of cotton. They observed that inIndia large farmers are more benefited and their investment in the cultivationof cotton production is high and small farmers had to face many problems andhardships to grow cotton.
Cotton is commercial crop and the profitability ofproduction of cotton starts from crop and ends with marketing. They suggestedthat irrigation system, good management, and technology helps the farmers forthe profitability of cotton crop.Deguine et al. (2008)explained that high use of inputs necessary for the production of cotton. Theyfound many factors that are responsible for the low yield cotton crop but themost important factor is insects these are not only caused to reduce thequality of crop but also reduce the production of cotton.
The excessive use ofchemical pesticides also effects the crop of cotton, plant pathogens also aserious threat to crop. The high use of pesticides affects the health of thelabor and production of cotton also effected due to the fewer availability offarmers in the field.Sprangers (2011)explainedthe concept of carbon footprints, carbon radiations produced by direct andindirect sources from a life and these emission measured in kilogram and tons.He found that Co2 is the one the important tool for controlling greenhousegases. Co2 produced due to everyday activities and due to human activities likebusiness travel that may be direct and indirect emission. Due to environmentalfactors that effected by co2 the crop production effects badly. He suggestedthat carbon footprints would be established for households, schools, productionservices, and business sector.
Mal et al. (2014) explainedthe two varieties of cotton Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton and found that Btcotton is more profitable than non-Bt cotton but Bt cotton is not appropriatefor dry land and it needs more irrigation and farmers of Bt cotton used morequantity of fertilizer as compared to non-Bt cotton. They estimated in future,the area can be reduced of soil fertility of Bt cotton. Bt cotton is beneficialfor the environment because it reduced the use of insecticide. So farmers usedBt cotton because of they wanted to increase their production and reduced useof insecticide but adoption causes vary area to area.
They found Northern Indiaadopted Bt cotton due to economic factors that are expensive of insecticides,revenue of cotton and income of non-farm and some factors like education andfarmer’s network and also found that in Punjab farmers adopted Bt cotton morethan other farmers in India.Mekonnen and Hoekstra(2014) found that the shortage of water increased theresources there is limited freshwater resources to fulfill the global demandfor food. With the lack of water crops also effected thus the volume of waterfootprints reduced per unit to produce a crop. They wanted to analyze the waterfootprints benchmarks for huge numbers of the crop in the whole world and theirstudy showed that water saving and reduced water footprints are very important—- with 54% reduction in water footprints can save water about 39% andproduction also increased in this manner. The supply chain also effected by WFbenchmarks which based to reduce the income of farmers.
They suggested thatthere should be a policy to measure performance and water footprints would bereduced. Abedullah et al. (2015)estimatedthat in Pakistan the effect of Bt cotton on environmental efficiency but it isbetter than non-Bt cotton. The adoption of Bt cotton is 37% higher than non-Btcotton for the environmental improvements. They analyzed the effect of Btcotton on environmental efficiency in Pakistan by using survey data and appliedheteroscedastic stochastic production model. They found that there is anegative impact on environment and health issues can be reduced by Bt cottonand it contributes to development of agriculture sector.
Diarra et al. (2017) estimatedthe central point affecting cotton yields and assessing the feasible impacts offuture environmental change. The consequences of investigation with respect tothe potential effect of the future environmental change on cotton yield showedthat further increments in worldwide temperature would essentially diminish theyield of cotton. Future changes in precipitation would likewise influencecotton creation, yet contrasted and the impacts of temperature, the impacts ofprecipitation are generally lesser.
Thus, techniques for diminishing theeffects of environmental change on cotton creation ought to emphasize theadvancement of warmth safe cultivars instead of dry season safe ones keeping inmind the end goal to moderate and adjust them to the impacts of environmentalchange. Expanding temperature in the two first developing stages is for themost part troublesome for cotton yield, while it is ideal in the two laststages. An excess of rain in the second stage is negative for cotton yieldhowever great in the three different stages.Reham et al.
(2017) explainedthe association between agricultural (GDP) and yield of the cotton crop, theregion under the cotton product and fertilizer utilization in Pakistan over theperiod 1970– 2015. Time series data gathered from Economic Survey of Pakistanand Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (different productions). Ordinary LeastSquare technique (OLS), (ADF) Augmented Dickey-Fuller test and co-integratedtest used to examine cotton crop data. The aftereffects of co-joining uncoveredthat there exists a long haul connection between the yield of the cotton crop,the land under cotton crop, fertilizer utilization and agricultural totalnational output of Pakistan. The consequences of low investigation demonstratedthat yield of cotton harvest and fertilizer utilization has a positiveassociation with the rural GDP of Pakistan while the area under cotton has anegative association with the agriculture total national output of Pakistan.
Cottonwill proceed as a critical supporter of the national economy Government willadditionally reinforce its cotton administration Investment in cotton willconcentrate on enhancing profitability and effectiveness Private division willbe urged to lead advancement, get learning and speculation cotton innovation(esteem chain and varietal improvement) Free market strategy will proceed andthe legislature will haul totally out of the cotton business and concentrateessentially on direction. METHODOLOGYArea of studyThestudy will be based upon the primary source of data. The data will collect fromfield survey by face to face interview with farmers of villages of khanewaldistrict multan. All categories of farmers will be selected-small, medium andlarge producers of cotton. Sampling and data collectionTheresearch will contain two major sections the first section includes datacollection with random sampling method and analysis of data explained in thesecond section. Questionnaire development is an important medium to collectdata from farmers and that will develop well-structured and contains allimportant and relevant questions to cotton production and determinants thateffect yield of cotton.
The question will be asked of cotton growing farmers intheir language.Data analysisIwill analyze how much water footprints required for cotton production in unitsand also estimate the carbon footprints by using appropriate econometrictechnique and applied descriptive statistics used to find out the yield gaps ofcotton.