Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Merle Warner
Last updated: June 25, 2019
IntroductionLanguagecontact Wordsalways travel with the people they belong to and become a source of newvocabulary for other languages (Qandeel Hussain, Rashid Mahmood, Muhammad AsimMahmood ,2012). Linguistic borrowing is the outcome of language contact(Wackernagel, 1904, Winford, 2003, p.
10, cited in Qandeel Hussain at el, 2012). There are three kinds of contact situations, when a conquered group adoptsthe language of its conquerors, when the reverse occurs, and when there ismutual influence leading to a mixed language (Wackernagel, 1904, Winford, 2003,p.10, cited in Qandeel Hussain at el, 2012 ). Language contact leads tolanguage change that can be in the form of sound change, semantic change, andphonological or morphological change (Wackernagel, 1904, Winford, 2003, p.10,cited in Qandeel Hussain at el, 2012 ). Novel vocabulary items have beenborrowed with the introduction of new technological innovations and foreignproducts such as mobile led to the incorporation of other words, such ascasing, keypad, sim, memory card, charger, handfree (Mahmood, and MahmoodHussain, 2011).English itself has been an insatiable borrower but today,sEnglish is a major donor language, a prime source of loaning for many otherlanguages of the world (David Crystal, 2010, cited in Dr.
Muhammad Aslam Sipra,2013 ). More than 120 languagescontributed towards the present vocabulary of English (David Crystal, 2010,cited in Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).
When there is cultural borrowing , there is always the likelihoodthat the associated words may be borrowed too (Edward Sapir, 1921, cited inDr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Around7000 languages spoken all over the world (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Whenlanguages come into contact, there is transfer of linguistics items from onelanguage to another due to the borrowing of words (Kachru, 1989 cited inDr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).
Thereare two hypotheses about the lexical borrowing in languages, one is deficithypothesis and other is dominance hypothesis (Kachru, 1994, cited inDr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).According to deficit hypothesis borrowing entails linguistic gaps in a languageand remedy the linguistic deficit, especially in the lexical resources of alanguage (Kachru, 1994, cited in Dr.
Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). When people start using English innon-native contexts, it develops as a transplanted language. Kachru (1986:30)defined transplanted language as,” a language may be considered transplanted ifit is used by a significant numbers of speakers in social, cultural andgeographical contexts different from the contexts in which it was originallyused……a transplanted language is cut off from its traditional roots and beginsto function in new surroundings, in new roles and new contexts”(cited in inHafiz Ahmad Bilal at el, 2012). Bilingualismin itself is a source of creativity in language and that creativity ismanifested in the form of mixing, switching, alteration and transcreation ofcodes(Talaat,2003, cited in Behzad Anwar, 2007). Languages that are in contact with each othersocially may become changed linguistically (Trudgill, 1986:1 cited in BehzadAnwar, 2007). language is variable.
If structure is at the heart of language,then variation defines its soul (Sapir, 1921). Code mixin and borrowingCodemixing is the change of one language to another in the same oral or writtentext (Myers-Scotton, Boeschoten, and Azuma. 1998, cited in Ho, 2007, Lau SuKia, 2011). Code mixing means the lexical items and grammatical features of twolanguages that exist in the same sentence (Muysken, 2000, cited in Lau Su Kia,2011). Muysken (2000, cited in Liu, 2008, Lau Su Kia, 2011) establishes threecategories of code mixing; Insertion (the insertion of well defined chunks oflanguage B into a sentence that otherwise belongs to language A), Alternation(the succession of fragments in language A and B in a sentence, which isoverall not identifiable as belonging to either A or B), Congruentslexicalization (the use of elements from either language in a structure that iswholly or partly shared by language A and B(p.6).
Code mixing is a situationwhere language users code mix two or more languages (Nik, 1988, cited in Lau SuKia, 2011). Code mixing occurs within the sentential level and usually involvesthe use of lexical items (McLaughlin, 1984, cited in Hoffman, 1991, Lau Su Kia,2011). Using two languages such that a third ,new code emerged, in whichelements from the two languages are incorporated into a structurally definablepattern is called code mixing (Maschler, 1998, p.125, cited in Lau Su Kia,2011). Code mixing refers to the mixing of various linguistic units like words,phrases, clauses, and sentences(Bhatia and Ritchie, 1999,p.
244, cited in Lau SuKia, 2011). Code mixing is inter sentential and it is motivated by social andPsychological factors (Bhatia and Ritchie, 1999,p.244, cited in Lau Su Kia,2011). Code mixing refers to the use of one or more languages for consistenttransfer of linguistic units from one language into another(Kachru, 1978, p.28,cited in Lau Su Kia, 2011).
People with better level proficiency in english usecode switching and people with low level proficiency in english use code mixingdevice (Asmah, 1992, cited in Lau Su Kia, 2011). ). There are three ways ofborrowing,1.direct borrowing, with little or no change in the original word.
2.translator of the world which is already available in vernacular. 3. Mixtureof local and foreign language (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Borrowing takesplace from the dominating to the subordinate (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).The borrowing of foreign words always entail their phonetic modification (Edward Sapir, 1921, cited in Dr.
Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Dr.Muhammad AslamSipra (2013) highlighted four factors which are responsible for borrowing;Government policies, Media, Social consciousness and Opinion Makers(Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Code mixing is a sociolinguistics phenomenawhich is frequent among bilingual or multilingual communities (Iftikhar AhmedChughtai, at el, 2016). In comparison with the borrowing in syntax andmorphology, lexical items have the highest ease of borrowing and seem mostlikely to occure (Brutt Griffler, 2002; Romaine, 1995, cited in Behzad Anwar,2007). Importanceof English Morethan half of the world,s technical and scientific periodicals are published inEnglish ( Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).
300 million people speak English asL2, 100 million people use it as foreign language, 1000 million people have some knowledge of English(M.S.Thirumalai,2002, cited in Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013English is thelanguage of the five of the largest broad casting companies of the world (BBC,CNN, NBC, CBS, CBC) (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).
With increasedpenetration of English into the lives of people, its usage in both formal andinformal contexts is rising day by day (Iftikhar Ahmed Chughtai, Misbah AfsheenKhan, and Misbah Rosheen Khan, 2016 ). There are 430 million people in theworld who use English as L2 and 330 million use it asL1 (Crystal, 2003:65,cited in Hafiz Ahmad Bilal at el, 2012). Non-native speakers use English morethan the natives ones (Crystal, 2003, cited in Hafiz Ahmad Bilal at el, 2012).
Thereare three kinds of English speaker: those who speak it as a first language,those for whom it is second or additional language and those who learn it as aforeign languageA1 ((Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el, 2015 ).Native speakers may feel that the English language belongs to them, but it willbe those who speak English as a second or foreign language who will determineits world future ((Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el, 2015 ).
Historyof English in India(subcontinent)Thereare three phases of English in India i.e. the missionary phase (1614-1765), thephase of local demand (1765-1835), government policy following TB Macauley,sMinute of 1835 (Rehman, 1990).
From 1600s English has been used in India by theEast India Company and English missionaries(Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el, 2015 ).From 1800s Christian schools started to deliver education in English(Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el, 2015 ). Establishingof English as a language for education and trade has been firmly founded by theMinute of 1835(Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el, 2015 ).
Kachru, (1983) says that theMinute of Macaulay showed his desire to creating a class who may be interpreterbetween The English and the millions Indians. A class of persons: Indians inblood and color, but English in taste, in opinion, in morals and in intellect(cited in Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el, 2015 ). English language has started toemerge in the 18th and 19th centuries due to the colonial expansion of theEnglish speaking people (Graddol, 2004, cited in (Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el,2015). The colonial rule for 190 years has introduced English insub-continental education, Since then South Asian people are familiar withusing English in education, business and trade (Md.
Mokarrom Hossain at el,2015). Because of long term affiliation with English in South Asia, people herestarted using a type of English that can be called “localized” or “nativized”English by adopting some unique features of its own, such as sound, intonationpatterns, words, expressions etc (Kachru, 1994; Platt, Weber and Lian 1984). Pakistanand EnglishInPakistan, power and authority are captured by English and Urdu (Rehman, 2006,cited in Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).18 million, constituting 11 % of totalPakistani population, speak English in pakistan making it the 3rdlargest English using Asian country (Boltan, 2oo8, cited in Hafiz Ahmed Bilal,Ali Abbas Warraich, Nida Fatima, and Talha Rasheed Bhatti, 2012). Pakistanistudents are unable to complete their conversation without the help of Englishborrowing (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).
Rehman (1990) has categoriesPakistani variety of English into four sub-varieties, which are, AnglicisedEnglish(closer to SBE), Acrolect (differ from SBE in the dimension ofmorphology, syntax, lexis, semantics and phonology, used by graduates from elitistEnglish medium schools), Mesolect (differs from SBE, spoken by people belongingto middle and upper middle class), and Basilect (used by clerks, minorofficials and typists)( cited in Hafiz Ahmad Bilal at el, 2012). ). Theintroduction of English as a compulsory subject, paved the way for Englishwords to be borrowed (Qandeel Hussain at el, 2012). A person who knows English is considered tobe an educated one and it has become a symbol of elitism (Qandeel Hussain, 2012). Historyof urdu Urdu was a complex language before, but whenurdu started borrowing English words, it underwent the process ofsimplification(Dr.
Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Urdu has long history of lexical borrowingand always remained victim of foreign languages ,e.g. Arabic, Persian andEnglish (Qandeel Hussain at el, 2012 ).
Urdu is a blend of foreign languages(Qandeel Hussain at el, 2012 ). Muslims welcomed foreign languages insubcontinent and adopted a plethora of words which unconsciously gave birth toa new language to which we know today as Urdu (Sadeed, 2006, cited in QandeelHussain at el, 2012). During the Mughal rule in India the word urdu was usedfor lashker(army) (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). In Turkish, the word Urduis used for army even now (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).
During the 12thcentury the Indian court was dominated by the Turkish courtiers, so the earlierform of Urdu was influenced by Turkish language( Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra,2013). Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Hindi, and Punjabi are the languages whichinfluenced Urdu (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). The earliest writing whichcould be called Urdu was the writings of Ameer Khusroo from 1255 A.D to 1325A.D.
( Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). In the book of Syed Mubarak, a quotationof Baba Ganj Shakkar is written in Urdu (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Urducame into being with the mixture of Punjabi, Multani, Gujrati, Dakkani dialectsbut its original shape developed in Delhi (Dr.
Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Thelanguage of U.P was Hindi which is now known as Urdu (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra,2013 ). By the end of 18th century the poets and writers called Urduas the language of Delhi ( Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013).
After in dependenceurdu became the national language of Pakistan (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).English could not influence Urdu before partition of India for four reasons,firstly, Urdu was not the national language of the Indian sub-continent but itwas a regional language of Muslims , secondly, the Muslims not only hated the Britishbut their language also, thirdly, Muslim majority areas were kept ignorant inBritish rule, fourthly,the Muslims tried to keep their language urdu free fromcorruption (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Urdu-Englishcontact When British came to India , both English andUrdu were influenced by each other ( Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 20130). There arethree stages of Urdu-English contact,1. When British tourists came tosub-continent.
2.When East India Company influenced over the local politics.3.when British oust the Dutch, the French and the Portuguese from subcontinent(Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). English replaced Persian in all the fieldsincluding education ( Dr.
Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). In countries whereEnglish is L2 ,it has become the integral to the working of a country (D,Souza,2001). Urdu established contact with theworld through English (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). In Urdu, loanwords fromPersian and Arabic are for older than English loanwords (Riaz Ahmed Islam,2011). Certain lexical items may show a shift from their original standardbritish English usage to urduished meaning (Talaat,1993). Newspapers Newspapers (historicaland contemporary) are full of different kinds of information that can be usedin many ways- for amusement or education and scientific research (SanjicaFaletar Tanackovic at el, 2014).
Newspapers reflect social and cultural valuesof certain place and time and often contain unique informations that cannot befound anywhere else(Sanjica Faletar Tanackovic at el, 2014). Newspapers carry areflection of the language structure of a certain time (Sanjica FaletarTanackovic at el, 2014). Newspapers are material artifact worth researching,both in print form and online(Sanjica Faletar Tanackovic at el, 2014). Online newspapers offer a lot of material forsociological research (Sanjica Faletar Tanackovic at el, 2014). Explicit values of newspapers make themworthy of research in the social sciences and humanities (Sanjica Faletar Tanackovicat el, 2014).
Scholars such ashistorians, linguists, psychologists, scholars from media studies, educationscience, information science, publishing, graphic design and other scientificfields could benefit from newspapers(Sanjica Faletar Tanackovic at el,2014). The professional literaturedevoted to the topic of newspapers as an information source reflects thediverse aspects from which newspapers are studied( Sanjica Faletar Tanackovicat el, 2014). Whitlam and Preston (1998) discussed newspapers as an informationresource in sports journalism (cited in Sanjica Faletar Tanackovic at el,2014).
According to Tibbo (2002) in digital age, historians used newspapers intheir researches as primary resource materials (cited in Sanjica Faletar Tanackovicat el, 2014). Hassan, Wade and Wilkinson(2012) analysed the information needs of historians working with original andprimary resources, particularly local newspaper collections(cited in SanjicaFaletar Tanackovic at el, 2014). SanjicaFaletar Tanackovic at el (2014) conducted a research on newspapers and asked aquestion as “what kind of information do you study in the newspapers?” 50.7%respondents answered that they study newspapers to look for linguisticcharacteristics of the text of newspapers.
Journalists are trained to use language in special ways that couldenhance the overall development of any society (Innocent Ejimofor, 2015). Journalismis a profession practiced by people who are relatively trained in the art ofinformation dissemination (Innocent Ejimofor, 2015). In print media words arechoose that would convey specific meaning to their intended or target audiencewithin a particular thematic framework( Innocent Ejimofor, 2015). According toRasul, (2006) Media (print and electronic) has played a vital role in codemixing of languages because media, language and society are tied closely amongthemselves. Columns deal with inside stories of different national andinternational issues. Columns are read out to get the deep information aboutdifferent issues which are not present in headings or other portions ofnewspapers. Ajayi (2002) says that newspapers are a highly rich source ofinformation, for example newspapers convey local national and internationalaffairs, up-to-date information on political, health, music, sports,entertainment, arts, fashion, law, economics, medicine, science and technologyissues. newspapers provides real life situations of effectively acquiring andusing English as a communication tool (Education World, 2011).
According toClandfield and Foord (2011) newspapers possess of a lot of information writtenby experienced writers. They consist of different kinds of texts such asnarrative, stories, letters, advertisements, reports etc. Clandfield and Foord (2011) say that usingnewspaper to teach reading and writing demonstrates the concepts of thestructures of English language. It helps students to see realistic examples ofthe practical applications of grammar and comprehension. Catherine Happer &Greg Philo studied the role of the media in the construction of public beliefand social change. They say that media are keys to the setting of agendas andpublic interest on particular subject. They says that media affects atgovernment level, in term of change in policy and at the level of theindividual, through commitments to behavioral change.
They also say thatrelationship of media content to audience is not singular or one way. Policymakers for example can both feed information into the media, and also attemptto anticipate audience response to the manner in which policy is shaped and presentedA2 . Allan Bell studied the language ofnews media. Researcher said that media is a source of data for languagefeatures. Media use those language features which are found in ordinary speech.media also affect language in society. Media language is easier to collectthan conversation.
Media language can tell us things about media and aboutlanguage. In this article Allen shares a line of McQueen (1969) in which hesays that media live by the size and composition of their audience, in oneformulation, six out of seven characteristics of mass communication f+-ocus onthe audience. Allen also says that audience exercises their influence on themedia through being the audience. Allen also says that mass media is for mass.
Allen says that if the style does not shift to suit the audience, the audiencewill shift to style that does suit. Allen used a term style shift, which meansa regular association between language and social situation. Allen also uses aterm initiative style shift which means a relationship between speaker andaudience.
A1Reference?? A2Itis fine…yet the researches need to be in such way….. the summary of theresearch especially the results drawn from it…..and in the end you have to givegap of your research….