INTRODUCTIONMan, the superior of all thespecies is always remaining in search of one prime goal, ‘The perfect health’.From Vedic era to space age, all the researches have been directed by theeminent scholars to achieve the same.
Ancient Acharya’s and their counterpartsin this era tried and still trying their best to beep the man young and virile.Veda’s the source of divine knowledge, who has been enlighten the path ofcomplete solace since ages.Ayurveda, one of the best andtraditional health care systems of Indian origin, attempts to focus on holistichealth management, both prevention and curing of ailments1. It is more suited to Indianhuman psychology than modern health care system. Cholelithiasis (gall bladder stone) is acrystalline concretion formed within the gall bladder by accretion of bilecomponents.2Cholelithiasis is one of the prevalent and expensive gasteroenterologicaldisease.
It belongs to the group of complex metabolic disorder that affecthuman , and its critical pathogenic mechanism are not well defined. Theprevalence of cholesterol cholelithiasis in Western countries is about 10-20%and every year 1-3% of people develop gall stones3.An epidemiological study shows that in India prevalence of cholelithiasis isabout 4%. It is rare in first two decades. Incidence gradually increases after20 years. It reaches peak in 5th and 6th decades.Gall bladder stones varieswidely in different communities in India, the North Indians having 2-4 foldhigher prevalence as compared with those amoung South Indians4.Women are affected more than men, andthe ratio is 4:1.
It is said that the gallstons are more in fat, fertile, fortyand female5.Actual mechanism of cholelithiasis gets attentionfrom the research workers. Factors for production of gallstones are multiple,complex, interrelated and not always single, direct, or simple. The drugs todissolve gall stones or other non surgical methods are still consideredexperimental in modern medicine.
Cholesterol gall stones can sometimes bedissolved by oral Ursodeoxycholic acid, but it may be required that the patienttakes this medication for 2 years. Gall stones may reoccur however once thedrug is stopped.By over all view it is very much clear that treatment prescribed in modern medicine for Cholelithiasis is far fromsatisfactory and is often accompanied with several side effects. Theiris no evidence of pittasaya ashmari in the ancient Ayurvedic treaties. It is clearly mentioned inAyurveda that putting of accurate nomenclature of a disease is not alwayspossible and that can be assessed, diagnosed or managed by wise physicianconsidering the Dosha, Dhatu, and mala theories.
The disease which had not beenmentioned in Ayurvedic classics are opined by the scholar how to manage them. In this circumstance, to develope a new potent,chief ,innocent drug of plant origin will be summum bonum for the sufferinghumanity in this world. So there islarge scope in Ayurveda in the field of management of Cholelithiasis. Everyone has to possess a new drug formulationfor the natural diseases in a natural process in order to find a new drug withits authentication to prove that the drug possess on that particular organ withoutaffecting the other organs.Acharya Sushruta veryspecifically indicates Paneeya Kshara in the management of Ashmari and theKshara due to its ksharana property can easily dissolve Ashmari.7By keeping all the factsin the mind the study entitiled “Clinical AndExperimental Evaluation Of Paneeya Kshara In The Management Of CholelithiasisW.
S.R To Pittasaya Ashmari was selected. The drug which possess diuresis,antihyper-lipidemic as well as anti-inflammatory Properties was kept in thethought process of the disease and a drug “Makkaya” was selected.