Type: Definition Essays
Sample donated: Laurence Hall
Last updated: August 26, 2019
Introduction:”Take a moment and placeyour hand over your chest on the left-hand side near your lungs. Can you feelit beating”?This continuous beatingwhich you could feel is a mind-blowing Organ called “The Heart” of Human bodywhich plays a key role in how the body functions (A Look at the Human Heart: Acls.net, 2017). The heart issituated in the thoracic pit average to the lungs and back to the sternum. Theheart is a solid organ about the extent of a shut clench hand that facilitatesas the body’s circulatory pump. It takes in deoxygenated blood through theveins and conveys it to the lungs for oxygenation before directing it intodifferent courses (which give oxygen and supplements to body tissues bytransporting the blood throughout the body) (Heart: Innerbody.com, 1999-2017).
But think if such animportant organ stops working because of our day to day misdeeds. One suchresult of our silly ignorant attitude is the disease called “Coronary HeartDisease”.Definition:Coronary Heart Disease(CAD) (Also called: CAD, Coronary arteriosclerosis or Coronary Artery Disease, hardeningof the arteries, Heart disease, Ischemic heart disease) is a disease in which awaxy substance called plaque develops inside the coronary conduits. These veinssupply oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle. At the point when plaquedevelops in the supply routes(artery), the condition is called atherosclerosis.The development of plaque happens over numerous years.Oversome time, plaque can solidify or burst (tear open).
Solidified plaque limitsthe coronary corridors and diminishes the stream of oxygen-rich blood to theheart. If the plaque breaks, a blood coagulation can shape on its surface. Avast blood clump can block the most part or totally does not allow blood tomove through a coronary supply route (What is :Coronary Heart Disease-Nhlbi.nih.gov, 2015).Symptoms:· ChestPain (Angina): A typical symptom of a coronary illness(CHD). Emotional and physical pressure likewise can trigger the pain. It may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest.
The pain also canoccur in your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back. Usuallyoccurs on the middle or left side of the chest. You may feel pressure ortightness in your chest, which usually goes away within minutes after stoppingthe stressful activity.
Angina pain may even feel likeindigestion. (Symptoms:Coronary artery disease,Diseases & Conditions,Mayoclinic.org, 1998-2017) (Conditions:AnginaChestPain,Heart.org, 2015)· Shortnessof Breath: Another normal indication of CHD. Thisside effect happens if CHD causes heart disappointment (failure).
When you haveheart failure, your heart can’t sufficiently direct blood to address yourbody’s issues. Liquid develops in your lungs, making it difficult to relax.(Symptoms:Coronary artery disease,Diseases & Conditions,Mayoclinic.org, 1998-2017)Afew people who suffer from CHD have no signs or symptoms—a condition called’Silent CHD’. The infection won’t be analysed until the patient has signs of aheart attack, heart failure or an arrhythmia (a sporadic pulse).· HeartAttack: A totally blocked coronary artery maycause a heart attack. The typical sign and side effects of a heart attackincorporate pulverizing weight in your chest and agony in your shoulder or arm,some of the time sweating. ladies are to some degree more probable than men areto encounter less signs and side effects of a heart attack, for example, neckor jaw torment.
Sometimes heart attack comes with no clear signs or sideeffects. (Symptoms:Coronary artery disease,Diseases & Conditions,Mayoclinic.org, 1998-2017)· Arrhythmia: Anarrhythmia is an issue with the rate or beat of the pulse/ heartbeat. When youhave an arrhythmia, you may see that your heart is skipping beats or pulsatingtoo quick. A few arrhythmias can make your heart suddenly quitpulsating. This condition is called sudden cardiac arrest (SCA).
SCA, for themost part, causes death if it’s not treated within few minutes (Symptoms:Coronary artery disease,Diseases & Conditions,Mayoclinic.org, 1998-2017)Causes:Coronary artery diseaseis thought to begin with damage or injury to the inner layer of a coronaryartery, sometimes as early as childhood. The damage may be caused by variousfactors, which includes:· Smoking: -Smoking damages blood vessels,lead to unhealthy cholesterol levels, and raise blood pressure. Smoking alsocan limit the oxygen supply to body tissues.· High cholesterol (and certain fats): – HighLDL cholesterol (sometimes called “bad” cholesterol) and low HDL cholesterol(sometimes called “good” cholesterol) can harm the blood supply.· High blood pressure: – Uncontrolled high blood pressure can result inhardening and thickening of your arteries, narrowing the channel through whichblood can flow.
· Diabetes orinsulin resistance: -Body is not able to use its own insulin and hence Diabetesis occurred leading to excess blood sugar affecting the purity of blood andoxygen supply.· Blood vesselinflammation: -Blood vessel inflammations leads to narrowing the artery andblocking the blood flow.· Sedentarylifestyle: -The unhealthy lifestyle leads to loosing metabolism, beingoverweight and early ageing leading to pressure on heart (Causes and Risk Factors:Coronary artery disease,Diseases & Conditions,Mayoclinic.org, 1998-2017)and (Causes and Risk Factors :Coronary Heart Disease-Nhlbi.nih.gov, 2015).Treatment:The most favourable treatments for CHD would beHealthy Lifestyle, medicines, medical procedures and surgery, and cardiacrehabilitation. Treatment goals for CHD should include:· Lowering the risk of blood clots forming(blood clots can cause a heart attack)· Preventing complications of coronary heartdisease· Reducing risk factors to slow, stop, orreverse the build-up of plaque· Widening or bypassing clogged arteriesHeart-Healthy Lifestyle:Healthy lifestyle isnothing but maintaining your health and preventing yourself from disease.
1. Heart-healthy eating: Do’s Don’ts Fat Free products like Fat-Free milk, Peanut Butter Saturated Fats which are in mostly Animal Products such as Red meat Fish High in Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Salmon, tuna etc. twice a week Palm and coconut oils Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, Avocados, Tofu and prunes Sugary foods and beverages Legumes, such as kidney beans, lentils, chickpeas, black-eyed peas, and lima beans.
Oils like Corn, Sunflower, Safflower etc. Trans Fatty Acids such as stick margarine; baked goods, such as cookies, cakes, and pies; crackers; frostings; and coffee creamers. Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and carrots. Salty Foods and lowering sodium intake Whole grains, such as oatmeal, brown rice, and corn tortillas Limit Alcohol Intake 2. Maintaining Weight:Maintainingweight is always good for healthy life as well as keeps you away from HeartDiseases.
Ideally, you should always have a check on your Body Mass Index(BMI)as follows: Weight Classifications BMI Levels Underweight Below 18.5 Normal/Healthy Weight Between 18.5 and 24.9 Overweight Between 25 and 29.
9 Obese Of/Above 30 BeingObese leads to high cholesterol levels, high blood sugars and a higher risk ofheart attacks. A person should maintain normal/healthy BMI levels to reduceheart attack risks.3.
Managing Stress:Themost common trigger for heart attack is an emotionally event especially Anger.Stress can be coped up easily by various ways such as below: Meditation,Physical Activity, Relaxation therapy, being with family and friends.4. Physical Activity:PhysicalFitness is the key to Healthy Life. Everyone should exercise for at least 2hours and 30 mins/week with a combination of moderate to high intensity workouts.
Physically fitness reduces bad cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, andexcess weight reducing the risk of Diabetics and improvement in goodcholesterol levels preventing from CHD.5. Quitting Smoking:Smokingincreases the risk of Coronary Heart Diseases and Heart Attacks. To help quitsmoking take help from doctors or counsellors who would give you good programs.Also, avoid being a passive Smoker.
Medicines:Sometimes lifestylechanges aren’t enough to control your blood cholesterol levels. By loweringyour cholesterol level, you can decrease your chance of having a heart attackor stroke. Doctors usually prescribe statins for people who have Coronary heartdisease, peripheral artery disease, or had a stroke, Diabetes, High LDLcholesterol levels.
Your doctor also may prescribe other medications to:· Decrease risk of heart Attacks and loweryour blood pressure.· Prevent blood clots, which can lead toheart attack or stroke.· Prevent or delay the need for a stent orpercutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or surgery, such as coronary arterybypass grafting (CABG).· Reduce your heart’s workload and relievecoronary heart disease symptoms Medical Procedures and Surgery:Both PCI and CABGare used to treat blocked coronary arteries. 1. Percutaneous Coronary InterventionPercutaneous coronaryintervention, commonly known as angioplasty, is a nonsurgical procedure thatopens blocked or narrowed coronary arteries. A thin, flexible tube with aballoon or other device on the end is threaded through a blood vessel to thenarrowed or blocked coronary artery.
Once in place, the balloon is inflated tocompress the plaque against the wall of the artery. This restores blood flowthrough the artery.During the procedure, thedoctor may put a small mesh tube called a stent in the artery. The stent helpsprevent blockages in the artery in the months or years after angioplasty.
2. Coronary Artery Bypass GraftingCABG is a type of surgeryin which arteries or veins from other areas in your body are used to bypass(that is, go around) your narrowed coronary arteries. CABG can improve bloodflow to your heart, relieve chest pain, and possibly prevent a heart attack.CardiacRehabilitation:The cardiac rehab teammay include doctors, nurses, exercise specialists, physical and occupationaltherapists, dietitians or nutritionists, and psychologists or other mentalhealth specialists.Rehab has two parts:· Education, counselling, and training. Thispart of rehab helps you understand your heart condition and find ways to reduceyour risk for future heart problems. The rehab team will help you learn how tocope with the stress of adjusting to a new lifestyle and how to deal with yourfears about the future.
· Exercise training. This part helps youlearn how to exercise safely, strengthen your muscles, and improve yourstamina. Your exercise plan will be based on your personal abilities, needs,and interests. (Treatment :Coronary Heart Disease-Nhlbi.
nih.gov, 2015)Prognosis:Long-termprognosis in the individual patient with coronary heart disease isunpredictable. However, there are broad patterns of survival in the variousclinical syndromes which may be expressed in sufficiently quantitative terms toallow an estimate of insurability.Prognosisis expressed most conveniently in terms of mortality ratios (actual to expecteddeaths), i.e.
, the relative number in a group succumbing compared to therelative number in the general population of the same age and sex dying in the sameperiod. In most clinical studies the long-term prognosis, i.e., survival afterthe initial period of acute coronary attacks, has been analysed in terms of thepercentage alive after five and ten years.Mortalityin the first two years after a coronary attack is of the order of six to seventimes normal (mortality ratio of 600 to 700 per cent). Thereafter it fallsprogressively, with increasing intervals of time after the attack.The milderthe acute attack, the more complete the recovery, and the older the age atwhich it occurs, the more favourable the long-term outlook.
Insuch groups, life expectancy may far exceed the over-all average experience,which in most studies has been that 3 of 5 persons surviving acute infarctionlive a further five years, and 1 of 3 survives ten years. Conversely, inpersons who have accompanying disorders predisposing to progression of coronarydisease, such as diabetes, the long-term outlook is poorer than average.Mortalityratios are somewhat better in persons with angina pectoris than in those whohave had known attacks of myocardial infarction, although in one very extensivestudy the five- and ten-year survival rates were not significantly higher.Long-term prognosis is slightly better in females than in males both ininstances of angina pectoris and after coronary attacks.The risk ofdeveloping overt disease may be multiplied several fold in the presence ofvarious predisposing factors, particularly when multiple factors are presentconcurrently. Among these are elevated serum cholesterol, obesity,hypertension, diabetes, strong family history of coronary disease, heavysmoking, sustained stressful personality pattern, and arcus senilis.
There areindications that the course of coronary heart disease may be modified, and thatthe pattern of survival may begin to approach that of the average population bycontrolling some of the predisposing factors, and by application of suchmeasures as dietary restriction of fat and prolonged anticoagulation.Clinicaland actuarial experience indicates that long-term mortality ratios followingattacks of myocardial infarction and in other syndromes of coronary heartdisease are not prohibitive; and insurability may be considered in appropriatecircumstances. References: A Look at the Human Heart: Acls.net.
(2017, December 18). Retrieved from Acls Training Center: https://www.acls.net/a-look-at-the-human-heart.
htm Causes and Risk Factors :Coronary Heart Disease-Nhlbi.nih.gov. (2015).
Retrieved from National Heart,Lung and Blood Institute,U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: https://www.nhlbi.nih.
gov/health-topics/coronary-heart-disease Causes and Risk Factors:Coronary artery disease,Diseases & Conditions,Mayoclinic.org. (1998-2017). Retrieved from Mayoclinic: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20350613 Heart: Innerbody.
com. (1999-2017). Retrieved from Innerbody: http://www.
innerbody.com/image/card01.html Symptoms:Coronary artery disease,Diseases & Conditions,Mayoclinic.
org. (1998-2017). Retrieved from Mayoclinic: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20350613 Treatment :Coronary Heart Disease-Nhlbi.nih.gov.
(2015). Retrieved from National Heart,Lung and Blood Institute,U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: https://www.nhlbi.nih.
gov/health-topics/coronary-heart-disease What is :Coronary Heart Disease-Nhlbi.nih.gov. (2015).
Retrieved from National Heart,Lung and Blood Institute,U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/coronary-heart-disease