Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Glenda Adkins
Last updated: September 27, 2019
Introduction Thereare two basic categories in scotch, Single Malt whiskeys and blendedwhiskey (all grain, all malt or a mix of grain and malt). No one of themis per better, but Single Malts only attained popularity inthe pass 50 – 60 years. 90% of scotch whiskies are blended and at the end ofthe day have been sold today, the taste that you have enjoy (Schneider,2015). In ireland’sHistory of Whiskey Distilling, it is rich of ups and downs and long. Thetechnique of distilling perfumes was brought by irish monks back from theirtravels to the Mediterraneancountries about 1000 A.D. Irish modified the technique to obtain a drinkablespirit. Distilling was brought to Scotland via Campbelltown and the Island ofIslay in many centuries later.
Figure1Beconsidered birt right on the Irish, and introduction of tax on the Whiskey-Distilling. A centuries-long conflict between the “Moonshiners” andthe Excisemen who enforced the tax collection were caused in 17th century.Excisemen were allowed to seize, Whiskey-making equipment, Whiskey and evenhorses and vehicles used for transportation in 1781 and private distillationwas banned by the UK government.In1608, the first licenses for distilling in a certain region were been granted.It had operation about 2,000 stills, two thirds of the output which beingconsidered from illegal distillation by the late 18th century. “The Whisky Distilleries of the UnitedKingdom” was Alfred Barnard visited Ireland in 1885 researching for hisbook, 28 of the number of legal distillers had been shrunk. Considered thefinest in the world was Irish Whisky. The most notably of distilleries inDublin, were as the original Irish Whiskey was called.
Huge enterprises withannual outputs of up to 2,000,000 gallons (9 Million Litres) of “PotStill”. (Potstill de history, 2016). Comparedto an average of below 100,000 gallons at their fellow distilleries inScotland, the Dublin “Big Four”, had a combined output of 5 MillionGallons per year. A chain of unrelated events caused the tragic decline of thisgreat industry: Firstly,widely adopted by the Scots who went on blending their Whiskies, but theinvention of the Patent Still by Aenas Coffey (an Irishman) was grosslyrejected by the proud Irish distillers.Secondly,as finally did the US Prohibition declaration in 1920. In the early 20thcentury, the institution of the Irish Free State caused a fatal trade war withGreat Britain, closing down the Irish Distillers’ main market, (Potstill dehistory, 2016).
Figure2Mostof the smaller establishments closed for good in those years. But only thelarger companies were able to wait for better times and shut down production. Old Midleton Distillery produced only for two weeks peryear, in the 1930s.
In1966, The Republic of Ireland Distilleries only survived by means ofconsolidation, which did the 3 remaining- Jameson, Power, and Cork Distilleries Co. They moved production to a newstate-of-the-art plant in Midleton, Co. Cork next to the old distillery where”Paddy” was produced for centuries and formed the Irish Distillers Group.Theyacquired Old Bushmills Distillery, from then on controlling every drop ofWhiskey produced in the country, in the early 1970s, John Teeling founded Cooley Distillery in Riverstown near Dundalk, Co.Louth, which remains independent until today, this changed in 1987.Figure 3Surprisingly,the old defunct Distilleries have not vanished for good: Traces of its once 6Distilleries , as well as those throughout the country, can still be found evenin the Dublin of the 21st Century, (Potstill de history, 2016).HistoryThehistory of the Dewar’s family and their well-known whisky business is one ofentrepreneurialism, ingenuity and sheer boldness. It begins in 1846 with JohnDewar, who opened a wine and spirits shop at 111 High Street in Perth.
Thesepremises are still in the family ownership for the next 50 years, this becomingthe place of work for John and wife Jane Gow’s 10 children. Dewar beginblending his own whisky in 1860s, at that time ‘mixture whisky’ was unfamiliarin the area.In1880 Dewar passed away, the business was passed to his sons John Alexander andThomas Robert (Tommy), who were only 24 and 16 years old during that time. Thefirm’s name was changed to John Dewar & Sons in 1886.
Tommy took theresponsibility of spreading the word of the business to London and overseas. In1892 he started on a two-year journey around the world which was been recordedin the book, ‘A Ramble Round the Globe’. His creative and revolutionarymarketing techniques, eventually became mythical.
Bythe following year, business was prosperity and the company had awarded a RoyalWarrant from Queen Victoria. The small Tullymet distillery rent by the familycould no longer handle the production demands, so John Alexander consignedAberfeldy distillery at Speyside in 1898. The following year, they came outwith its flagship expression – Dewar’s White Label.Followingto the Queen Victoria’s death and King Edward VII’s coronation, John Dewar& Sons’ Royal Warrant was renewed – as it has been by every British monarchsince – and Tommy Dewar knighted.Despitethe onset of WWI and interdiction in the US, Dewars’ success continued, and in1925 the company incorporate with Distillers Company Ltd to help secure thefuture of the industry.Finally,the group ended up in the hands of Diageo through a series of mergers, but in1998 was sold to Bermuda-based rum group Bacardi, along with Bombay Sapphiregin. Introducing the packaging update for the brand was the first exercise ofBacardi, as well as set up a home for it.
In 2000 the Dewar’s World of Whiskywas opened at Aberfeldy distillery which attracts over 35,000 visitors a year.Withdemand for premium Scotch whisky growing universal, Bacardi invested $250million in extending production capacity at its Glasgow site plus the build ofa development of a new developing facility at Poneil.Thebrand made its first venture into ‘flavoured Scotch’ with the introduction ofDewar’s Highlander Honey in 2013, while a second brand makeover was carry outin 2014. A new no-age-statement expression called Scratched Cask was introducedin May 2015 ( Dewar’s | Scotch Whisky,(n.d.
) ). Characteristicsof DEWAR’S Whiskey Dewar’sWhite Label Figure 4Ablend of up to 40 of the finest malt and grain Scotch whiskies. It has a quiteclearly pale-yellow colour. It is a delightful, medium bodied and smooth taste whiskey.It smells light and sweet. It has a roast malt lurking in the background, and keepa decent presence in the mouth. It finish is lengthy soft vanilla with a finalhint of peat Dewar’s12 years old Figure 5 Inearly 2000 the Dewar’s Premium range is very proud of its unique ‘marrying’production process.
The range is returned to oak casks for a further period of’marrying’ (approximately 6 months) after blending the whiskey. This allow thewhiskies to create a superbly balanced and silky-smooth whisky. It has a brightamber colour. Dewar’s 12YO has a mediumto full body flavour. It is rich and fruity whiskey. It is full and rich in themouth, with elegant honey and caramel tones. It has a medium to long finish,with liquorice notes emerging, plus a hint of smoke and oak. Dewar’sSignature Figure 6 Aultra-premium blended Scotch whisky.
Its colour is deep golden amber. It is atasty well-rounded whisky with peaty tones and mild sweetness. Sweet andbalanced on the nose with rich, fruity mellow tones of sultanas, raisins,apples and honey with vanilla and toffee overtones. The palate is sweet andsmooth with a full-bodied creamy texture and mouth warming effect exhibitingnotes of apple, bitter chocolate and layered honey. The finish is long andpleasant with a subtle dryness.
Dewar’s18 years old Figure 7Itis specially produced for the retail market. It has a dark copper gold colour.It is a medium legs and loos, large tears whisky. It smells heather honey,nutty, cereal barley, oak wood, polished walnut, dry and dusty, hints of tannicleather, hazelnut. It is smooth, creamy highland toffee & butterscotch,gristy malted barley, nutty; walnut, hazelnut, tobacco leaf, milk chocolate,Werthers original caramel candies, drying leather. The finish is medium long,drying, chocolate, nuts and toffee. Dewar’s25 years old Figure 8 Dewar25 years old present a dark copper gold colour. It is slow and loosemedium-sized tears leave medium-fine legs.
It smells like little bit of honeywith finely spiced, peel of the orange, oil and cinnamon. The aromas of thecereal are quite gristly and consists mostly of malted barley, very mealy andalmost savoury porridge and flapjacks before adding more fruits to the oranges thatincluding apple, pear and so on. It produces a smooth liquid and a balancing ofsavoury just like real heather honey, it also having the creaminess in mouthfeelwith the malted barley, oak wood and some gentle woody spices.
It is fullbodied and mouth-coating. The final is medium-long, slightly drying with tannicspices gently presented on lingering honey and cereal grain smoothness. Ingredients Barley -Figure 9 Barley is the main sourceof sugar required for yeast metabolism on brewing beer. The beer have special foam and cool, freshfeeling because gives by the final product of alcohol and carbon dioxide, and amalt flavor on the palate. Is guarantee the quality of beer.Only brew, taste, taste, aroma use by barley willindeed better than most domestic beer. As a raw material for brewing are itsyield, easy planting, wide distribution, good germination, better compositionof wine, those are advantages of barley. Barley more, beer taste more full,mellow many small breweries are still producing whole-malt beer in Germany, thetaste is very mellow.
. Beeryeast – Figure 10 Beer yeast is a tfermentation yeast mostly used in beer production. In addition to alcohol,brewing beer, and for other drinks. Thecolonies on a wort agar medium are milky white, shiny, flat and tidy bybrewer’s yeast.
It can be maltose, galactose, ferment glucose and sucrose, butit can’t melibiose and ferment lactose. Like high protein content, Cell vitamins,it can be used as edible, medicinal and feed yeast, but also can extractcytochrome cglutathione, , nucleic acid, clot, adenosine triphosphate andcoenzyme A. Microbial determination of vitamins, it is commonly used by beeryeast determination of thiamine, biotin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine andinositol. Pitilieburn water- Figure 11 Pitilieburn water.
A water which in Abell Distillery is located on theshores of the Tay River, the longest river in Scotland. Dewar’s Imperial Familyknown its pure water of quality and gold, every winery benefits from thissource, Abel’s Winery is built on the spring water of Pitilie Burn. They wereused only hand-made oak barrels for many years. The water isn’t anexaggeration. But in fact, Aberfeldy’s water Pitilie Burn can come out of gold,but the winery doesn’t need water to gold, but spend time to refining theliquid to gold.Fermentation alone, in order to bring more fruit andhoney flavor but need spend longer than the average 70 hours to ferment. In1898, Aberfeldy Distillation was built, the general beginners will certainlyfall in love.
Now distills got two wash still and two spirit stills, withnarrow still-still alcohol and relatively high, no peat with plus malt, allwhiskey out the sweet fruit, drag and other flavors, Equipment Oak barrels- Figure 12Oak barrels play a veryimportant role in the making of Scotch whiskey, and only some specific oakbarrel is suitable to be used in making aged whiskey. For examples Scotchwhiskeys are generally used only the oak barrels that made of Quercus alba andQuercus robur. In the past, wineries also used brand new oak barrels to makewhiskey, but later they find out that the new oak barrels let the whiskey toproduce an extremely rich flavor that overcover the delicate flavor of whiskeyand most wineries give up the use of new oak barrels, instead of using the usedoak barrels for aging whiskey, Bourbon Casks and Sherry Casks are most commonlyused in the aging process of whiskey. Beer distillery -Figure 13 Beer Distillery.
It canobviously smell thestuff has a rich bouquet, it taste will likebeer, at this time should be able to get started. Beer Distillationis aprocess of separating liquid mixtures bydifferent boiling points. We are trying this time to separate the alcohol fromthe water. Pure ethanol boiling point of 78.4 degrees Celsius, while theboiling point of pure water is 100 degrees Celsius, so heating will makealcohol first boiling ProductionMethodsDewar’sImperial Whiskey is made from high-quality barley, yeast, and pure Pitilie Burnspring water, ripened and bottled in an oak barrel in Scotland; until now, thebrewery remains on using the most traditional Brewing methods. For veryimportant distillers, when they need to replace the new distiller shape andsize must be maintained the same with the original. Dewar’s Imperial whiskey original “secondaging” process.
Whiskey from different parts of Scotland, after thebartender skillfully mixed deployment, and then re-placed in aging oak agingagain for 6-12 months, in order to obtain a more perfect balance, mellow andsmooth taste. Even science can not explain why Dewar’s Imperial whiskey’ssecond aging can make such a smooth whiskey whisper taste, but only once triedonce to distinguish the difference. Bottle of independent numbers. Each bottle ofDewar’s Imperial whiskey bottle has its own unique bottle number, which is inevidence of the excellent quality and perfect image of Dewar’s Imperialwhiskey. Dewar’s Imperial whiskey is brewed using barley, yeast, and purePitilie Burn spring water, matured and bottled in an oak barrel in Scotland andstill adheres to the most traditional brewing practices the founders consider. Dewar’s Royal whiskey Original “Second Aging”Process: The “Second Aging” process invented by the chief bartenderA. J. Cameron.
Whiskey from different parts of Scotland, after the bartenderskillfully mixed deployment, and then re-placed in aging oak aging again for6-12 months, in order to obtain a more perfect balance, mellow and smoothtaste. Even science can not explain why Dewar’s Imperial whiskey’s second agingcan make such a smooth whiskey whisper taste, but only once tried once todistinguish the difference. Sixty percent of Scottish blended whiskey comes fromcereal whiskey and the rest is malt whiskey. Scotch whiskey is subject toEnglish law: any whiskey brewed and mixed in Scotland can be called a Scotchwhiskey.
It is characterized by the use of local peat as the fuel to dry themalt, and then crushed, steamed, saccharified, fermented and then distilledthrough pot-type distiller to produce about 70 °ccolorless whiskey, and then re-load the internal scorched oak Barrels, storedfor five years or longer some time. There are many brands of whiskey brewingmore than a decade. The final blend blending prepared after the alcohol contentof about 40 °c.1. MaltingFirst, the malt or grain afterremoving the impurities is soaked in hot water for germination, the timerequired for the malt or grain varies according to the wheat or cerealvarieties, but it generally takes about one week To two weeks to germinationprocess, to be germinated and then dried or peat smoked, and then cooled andthen stored for about a month’s time, the germination process is completed, inthe What is particularly worth mentioning here is that among all the whiskeys,only the Scotch whiskey produced in the Scottish region smokes dried sproutedwheat or cereal with peat, thus giving Scotch whiskey a unique flavor, Thesmoky smell of peat, a feature not found in any other type of whiskey. 2. MashingPut the sproutedmalted wheat or cereal after one month into a special stainless steel tank tobe mashed and cooked into a juice, which takes about 8to 12 hours.
During the grinding process, the temperature and / Time controlcan be a very important part of the process, the temperature is too high or toolong will affect the quality of wort (or cereal juice). 3. FermentationThe cooling of thewort by adding yeast fermentation process, the yeast can convert the wort sugarinto alcohol, so after the completion of the fermentation processwill produce a liquid alcohol concentration of about 5% to 6%, the liquid wasCalled “Wash” or “Beer”. Because of the variety of yeastsand their different influences on the fermentation process, each differentwhiskey brand regards the type and amount of yeast it uses as its tradesecrets, Not easily tell outsiders, generally in the fermentation process, thewhiskey factory will use at least two or more different varieties of yeast, tocarry out fermentation, but at most there are a dozen different varieties ofyeast mixed together for fermentation effect 4. DistillationIn general, distillation has a concentration effect.Therefore, when beer or cereal is fermented to form alow-alcohol “Beer,” there is still a need to go through adistillation step to form whiskey. At this time, the concentration ofwhiskey is about 60 % ~ 70% is called “new wine”, wheat and cerealraw materials used in the distillation of different ways, malt whiskey madefrom wheat is to take a single distillation method, that is, a singledistillation vessel secondary Distillation process, and after the seconddistillation, the condensed outflow of wine go head to tail, just take the middleof the “Heart” (Heart) part of a new whiskey. In addition, thewhiskey made from cereal is to take a continuous distillation method, the useof two distillation vessels in a continuous series of two stages of thedistillation process, basically the various wineries in the filter”confession” amount There is no fixed standard of proportionality,which is entirely determined by the wine requirements of individual wineries.
Generally, the percentage of wine connoisseurs in each wineries is between 60%and 70%, and some wineries are Make high quality whiskey and use it for thehighest purity. This is the case for the world-renowned Macallan Single MaltWhiskey, which uses only 17% of the “wine heart” as a new wine forwhiskey making. 5. Aging (Maturing)After the distillation of the new wine must go throughthe aging process, making it aging oak barrel to absorbthe plant’s natural aroma, and produce a beautiful amber, but also cangradually reduce the high concentration of alcohol, a strong sense of excitement.Currently there are relevant decrees in Scotland to regulate the aging time ofwine, that is, each wine must be labeled wine age must be true, at least inScotland, whiskey brewed in wooden barrels for more than three years, To belisted for sale.
With such stringent measures, on the one hand, the rights andinterests of consumers can be protected and the quality of whiskey produced inScotland has been set high throughout the world. 6. Blending (Blending)Due to the largevariety of wheat and cereal raw materials, the resulting whiskey also varies inflavor, depending on the experience of different bartenders and therequirements of the brand. According to a certain proportion with their owndeployment blending their own unique flavor of whiskey, and therefore themixing process of each brand and its content are considered to be absolutelyconfidential, and mixed whiskey quality is good or bad It is completely judgedby tasting experts and consumers. It should be noted that the so-called”mixed with” contains two meanings that mix of cereals and wheatoriginal wine; blending of different aging brewing wine 7. BottlingIn the mixing process done, the last remaining isbottling, but before bottling whiskey mixed again to filter once, remove theimpurities, then you can by the automated bottling machine Dispense the whiskey into each of the bottles at a fixedvolume, and then paste the labels of the respective manufacturers forpacking. Basic process of whiskey making -Figure 14 Waitwhiskey manufacture part 1 -Figure15 Waitwhiskey manufacture part 2 -Figure16 ServingTechnique 1.
With a bit of waterWateropens new whisky flavors while decreasing the intensity of the alcohol. Watercan make a whisky appear hazy depending on how the whisky was filtered. There’snothing wrong with a hazy whisky and it won’t change the drinking experience. Whiskycomprises alcohol molecules, water molecules and various flavour compounds,which arrange themselves in a aggregation or ‘pattern’. However, the alcoholicstrength changes when water is added, so this aggregation, which in turn altersthe flavour profile. Alcohol can “drown out” certain flavours in a whisky, andprevent them from being discerned, but adding water can lowering the alcoholicstrength and makes more flavours and visible. 2. On the rocksThewhiskey change into refreshing drink when drinking on the rocks.
The ice willmake drink colder, but there are certain factors to consider. Chilling will changethe flavour profile of the drink. The whiskey will also be diluted when the iceis melted, which changes the way it tastes still further. Furthermore, the moreice there is it can help to prevent the ice melt quickly. But in terms oftaste, the effect of chilling is to suppress the level of some flavourcompounds and the greater the degree of chilling, the greater the suppression. 3. Straight Thewhiskey poured in the cup, do not full, half or one-third of the cup can beslowly included in the mouth with the tongue and throat savour, while feelingspread in the cup aroma.
It is best to prepare cool mineral water to restorethe tongue and throat due to the heat of whiskey, alternating between the two.